There’s one sure-fire way to ruin your day, engine, reputation under the hood, and road trip this summer. It’s fast, requires virtually no effort or planning, and happens to countless drivers every day. All you have to do is let your engine overheat because of insufficient cooling.
In this instance, I’m not talking about the more common, run-of-the-mill catastrophes usually behind a cooling system failure, including broken hoses or belts, insufficient coolant level, water pump or thermostat failure, or foreign object piercing the radiator.
Less dramatic, but equally effective at causing an engine to overheat, are scenarios in which a vehicle’s cooling system can’t dissipate enough heat fast enough to prevent an overheated engine. In most cases, it’s the result of an efficiency issue, even when everything on the cooling system is working properly. In other situations, modifications designed to coax more horsepower from the engine might also require changes to the cooling system because more horsepower usually equates to more heat generated.
Here’s a look at several add-on solutions to prevent engine overheating.
There’s a reason copper and brass have historically been materials of choice in vehicle radiators. Copper is great when it comes to thermal conductivity, performing 50 percent better than radiator fins made from aluminum. And brass is durable. So why are aluminum radiators becoming all the rage in high-performance engines and even among vehicle manufacturers? Weight. Aluminum radiators weigh 10 to 15 pounds less than traditional radiators. And they compensate for the reduction in their material’s thermal conductivity with increased radiator surface area and coolant capacity, design, fin spacing and even tube size.
The larger the radiator’s surface area translates to greater airflow reaching more coolant which means improved cooling capability. The limiting factor here is the amount of space you have or can create in which to shoehorn in a larger radiator.
Most radiators utilize a single-pass design – hot coolant comes in one side of the radiator, passes through, and exits out the opposite side. For increased cooling capacity, look at a dual-pass, horizontal-flow radiator. With this design, coolant passes through one half of the radiator, but instead of exiting, it then passes through the other half of the radiator, essentially making two passes instead of one.
Moving to a dual-pass radiator will probably also require a water pump upgrade because this radiator design places more demand on the pump. Which brings us to the topic of coolant speed. An aluminum radiator with larger diameter tubes is going to require an increase in the speed at which the water pump is moving coolant through the system. Your muscle car’s pulley-pump speed might have been sufficient when everything was stock from the factory, but any modifications made might now require changes to that speed and ratio.
In addition to tube size, high-performance aluminum radiators also have more fins, spaced closer together, for increased heat transfer from the coolant to the atmosphere.
Engine-driven fans can get the job done when you’re tooling down the highway at cruising speeds, but when you’re idling or fighting stop-and-go traffic – not so much. For increased cooling capacity, consider installing an electric fan, or two.
Unlike an engine-driven fan, an electric fan is going to generate enough airflow to sufficiently help cool the engine, regardless of engine RPMs or traveling speed. In addition to consistent airflow, electric fans can also net you more horsepower. It’s estimated that engine-driven fans steal about 35 horsepower and clutch-driven fans about half that amount while electric fans only take about one horsepower.
Installing a dual-fan set up enables the entire radiator surface to be covered with cooling air flow. Another option is to use a two-fan system, but with one fan stationed in front of the radiator, pushing air to it, and a second fan behind the radiator, pulling air to it – remembering that pulling is always more efficient than pushing.
As for fan blade style, that depends on what’s more important to you – cooling or noise levels. Curved-bladed fans are quieter than straight-blade fans, but they don’t move as much air.
And in what’s probably beginning to sound like a reoccurring theme, a changeover from an engine-drive fan to an electric one might also require some beefing up of the vehicle’s electrical system to ensure it’s up to the task and increased loads.
If you’re making the effort of adding an electric fan, make sure you go all the way and include an aluminum fan shroud. The right fan shroud can maximize the fan’s heat-reduction capacity by delivering cooling air to nearly every square inch of the radiator surface, while choosing aluminum helps deliver further weight reduction.
Type of Coolant
When it comes to the liquid flowing through the radiator, nothing’s better at heat transfer than plain old water. Unfortunately nothing also beats water when it comes to freezing in winter and destroying your engine, and corroding the radiator and inflicting a similar level of carnage there. If you are running straight water for coolant – some racing series require this – be sure to also include an anti-corrosion additive to the mix, and to take the necessary steps to prevent freezing before lower temperatures arrive. You’ll also need to research the benefits of using softened water if this is the somewhat risky route you choose to go. If, however, you choose to play it safe by using traditional antifreeze, also consider an additive, such as Red Line’s Water Wetter that prevents bubbles or vapor pockets from forming and helps bring temperatures down.
When it comes to summer driving, just remember – keeping your cool begins with your engine.
Editor’s note: Don’t blow your top…or your radiator cap this summer. Visit Advance Auto Parts for everything your engine needs to stay cool. Buy online, pick up in store, in 30 minutes.
A new track, a new city . . . with the same tough challenges. Formula DRIFT has hit tracks from Long Beach to Fuji, year after year bringing head to head battles to loyal fans – and now the famous race descends on Orlando. Advance was there—check out our exclusive coverage and photos.
On June 5th and 6th, the Sunshine State welcomed a noisy, fire-breathing visitor. Formula DRIFT, the prominent stateside series, took to Orlando Speedworld (OSW) bringing out drivers – ranging from amateurs to top tier pros – to the oval circus for a long weekend of racing madness. Fans and drivers alike called it reminiscent of New Jersey tracks back in Formula DRIFT’s heritage days.
Pro and Pro 2 series competitors brought in crazy attendance numbers to the classic small town oval (with a figure eight cross to boot!) and Mother Nature attended in full force, as well, bringing rain in swaths along with sweltering temperatures for every single second of the day.
Pro series drivers battled it out on Friday to qualify for Saturday’s main event. And, when the local hero Pat Goodin suffered mechanical troubles, the veteran stepped down to leave the playing field WIDE open.
Saturday morning dawns
The track felt empty but, in the paddock, teams were alive and well, getting their drift missiles ready for the Top 32 bracket competition just hours away.
Come on . . . picture the scene . . .
OSW offers one way on and one way off the track. Drivers pull onto the track and straight onto the burnout bank as the last two hooligans exit through the single lane chute back into the hot pit area. After a few tears up and down the burnout bank, drivers stage on the back half of the oval waiting for the all clear.
On green, the lead driver launches through his chicane and down the back straight, the following car tight on the rear right, waiting for the lead to dive into the corner at “Initiation Point.” With a flick, both cars put the hammer down and power the entire corner keeping as close to the wall and as close to each other as they possibly can.
The more fluidity, the more points, the more pizazz . . . the greater the score.
This first corner is on the high bank, making the drivers’ next move a teeth-clenching drop from the bank to the figure eight crossover. Both drivers smack the front air dams as they come off the bank slowly, preparing to flip from right-angled to left-angled slides.
If the harsh transition from high bank to flat oval wasn’t enough of an obstacle, drivers were thrown over a jump as they finish the transition and try to initiate the second sweeping oval turn. Mustangs and Matias alike caught the slightest air coming sideways over this bump, unloading and loading the car suspensions right as drivers tried to slam the power on to get proper speed for the upcoming left-hand sweeper.
The final corner crosses back past the burnout bank and the starting grid, but stays low on the flat section. After holding the slide for the entire top of the figure eight, the cars bolt through the finish line, billowing that gorgeous white smoke, letting the audience know that those tires have been thoroughly disciplined.
Mother Nature ups the ante
Weather conditions transformed this track into a low-lying above-ground swamp for a few hours every day, with Pro and Pro 2 racers alike seeing plenty of rain during battle. Saturday night, the classic Florida evening showers greeted fans with a welcomed cool down, but also with an unwelcomed torrential downpour.
Racers pushed on through the storm, though, and conditions really tested the drivers’ abilities – and it’s always awesome to see who succeeds when the going gets tough. Everyone sets up for dry weather and, when the weather changes, it’s equally a handicap for each of the drivers. A lack of smoke was disheartening for spectators, but the massive rooster tails were enthralling to watch as the cars barreled through the flooded infield.
The bottom line; drivers with true grit garner their experience and determination to make a spectacular full pull happen.
• Scion had a killer weekend and nears a manufacturer championship as FR-S drivers Ryan Tuerck and Kenshiro Gushi take 1st and 3rd, respectively.
• While Chris Forsberg, 2nd place, beat out Gushi, all Tuerck had to do to secure the win over Forsberg and his 370z was complete a full pull unopposed. Forsberg suffered mechanical issues, though, and Tuerck walked away with his first round win since 2009.
Here is the full 2015 Formula DRIFT race schedule.
Our resident Gearhead reminisces about his glory-filled car show days, and how nobody preps a car better than…you.
I don’t know much, but I’ll tell you one thing that’s for certain:
You’re not gonna win a car show if your car’s not squeaky clean.
Cleaning your car before the show starts is a way to show the judges that you really care. On the other hand, leaving dust, fingerprints and grime on the car is a clear signal that you’re not in it to win it.
So let’s talk about a few simple steps you can take to get your car spic and span once you arrive. I’ve been going to car shows for more years than I’d care to admit, and this is what works for me.
Okay, this one might involve a little nostalgia on my part. But I can’t help it. I grew up in a time when you didn’t trust your car to anyone else; you washed the thing yourself. And the best way to do that is still at a good old fashioned self-service car wash.
You know the drill. Pull into a stall, get your stack of quarters, feed ’em into the slot and select your cycle. I’m partial to the power-washer nozzle myself, because you just can’t get that kind of precision and control in an automated car wash. It’s especially useful for the wheels — you can really blast away and get into the nooks and crannies. When you start with the self-serve wash, you know that all your car will need afterward is fine-tuning.
Waterless Car Wash and Rags
Another indispensable weapon in my arsenal is waterless car wash. I literally never leave home without a spray bottle of Meguiar’s Ultimate Wash and Wax Anywhere in the trunk. Don’t forget that you’ll need a few microfiber towels, too.
In a pinch, this combo can give you a decent shine even without water (hence the name). You can use one towel to get the surface grime off and another to go back over the metal and polish it. But you do run the risk of rubbing some of that grime into your finish, and in any case, you obviously need to get yourself to water if you want to win a car show.
So here’s what I do: I start with the self-serve wash, and then I go over every surface with a fine-toothed comb, looking for spots that the high-pressure stream didn’t take care of. Whenever I see one, I spray a little Meguiar’s on there and rub it out. Simple as that.
If you follow these two steps, your exterior’s going to be ready for prime time.
But what about the cabin? Other than dusting and de-smudging as required, I mostly focus on the upholstery, and that means keeping it in the family with Meguiar’s Gold Class Rich Leather Cleaner. Take another one of those microfiber rags and rub this stuff in nice and deep on the seats, door panels, even the dashboard if it’s covered in leather or vinyl. The Meguiar’s formula isn’t greasy or shiny; it just gives the surfaces a really refined luster. Let me tell you, not all of the guys at the show will go this far to make their interiors sparkle, and that could be the difference between first and second place.
How Do You Keep It Clean?
I know I’m not the only one here with decades of car shows under my belt. What are your quick tips for cleaning up your act before the show? Let us know in the comments.
Editor’s note: Find all of the appearance products and accessories you need for car show prep at Advance Auto Parts. Buy online, pick up in-store in 30 minutes.
It wasn’t that long ago that custom paint jobs and decals were considered top-shelf customization. Sure those were a vast improvement from the days when more than 50% of the cars on the road were black, but customization has come a long ways in a short time, including:
- Engine mods
- Coilovers or air bags
- Car wraps
- And, of course, hydrographics
Hydrographics is also known as immersion printing, water transfer printing, water transfer imaging, hydro dipping and cubic printing. You may have even heard it called camo dipping, decorative transferring, fluid imaging or aqua printing. But, each term describes the same basic process.
In hydrographics, printed designs are applied to three-dimensional surfaces, including the exterior panels of vehicles, plus the interior and dash trim, the engine bay and wheels. This process can be used on metal, fiberglass, ceramics, plastic, glass, certain types of wood and more – in fact, on just about any surface that can be painted. You can even match the hydrographics on your motorcycle and/or ATV with the helmets you wear.
At its simplest, this is the process. The material to be printed is pre-treated. Then a pre-printed film with the design of choice is placed into a tub of water. Activating chemicals are sprayed on the film to dissolve it and serve as a bonding agent. The material to be printed is lowered into the tub, being dipped in one continuous motion. The ink wraps around the material and sticks to it. After the object being printed is removed from the tub, the chemicals are rinsed off.
Pinterest shows a variety of creative ways in which the process has been used to customize vehicles.
See the process in action
One of the more well-publicized uses of hydrographics was when American Chopper learned the process to create a one-of-a-kind camo bike.
High Tech Corvette shows a more detailed look at the process, from dipping to rinsing and from clear coating to drying, on a Camaro front splitter. This pattern gives the Camaro a cool carbon fiber look.
Besides a wide variety of camo and carbon fiber patterns in films used for hydrographics, films come in wood grain, metal, marble and other stone looks, along with designer films that print images of flames, flags, flowers, money, offbeat patterns and more.
Creation of hydrographics process
Although there is debate about the evolution of the process, the first hydrographic patent is one by Motoyasu Nakanishi of Kabushiki Kaisha Cubic Engineering on July 26, 1982 (4436571 A). Here is its description:
“printing apparatus provided with a structure which supplies a transcription film into a transcription tub containing a liquid so that the transcription film is kept afloat on the liquid, a structure which makes the liquid flow in a direction in which the film is supplied, and a structure which slantingly immerses an article to be printed into the liquid in the transcription tub from an upstream position to a downstream position of the liquid.”
This process has allowed countless vehicles to customize their rides – and hydrographics can be combined with custom paint jobs to create looks that are truly one of a kind.
Editor’s note: How about you? Are you thinking about using hydrographics to customize your vehicles? If so, what are your ideas? Share them in the comments.
In this installment, the Mechanic Next Door explores the unstoppable beast that is the Ford Super Duty F-250.
When it comes to geography and trucks, bigger is always better. Just ask the people of Texas, or Ford Super Duty F250 owners.
The Ford F150 pickup is enough muscle for most weekend warriors towing the occasional camper, horse trailer, or boat for a weekend getaway. The same holds true for drivers hauling a bed full of hay bales, mulch for the flower beds or a relative’s furniture.
But when the game shifts to towing bigger, heavier loads more frequently, that’s when truck drivers opt for the big guns – the Ford Super Duty F-250.
Super Duty – it wasn’t a truck first
The Ford Super Duty F-250 debuted in 1998 with the ’99 model year. Those early models featured distinct styling – including unique headlamps and grilles – with countless Ford Super Duty F-250 accessories available today that help them stand out from their less powerful F-150 brethren. That first 250 featured a 5.4 liter V-8 delivering 255 horsepower and 350 pounds of torque, with available options including a 6.8 liter V-10 or a 7.3 liter turbodiesel.
Fittingly, since the 250’s branding and performance focus on power, the Super Duty moniker first appeared on the scene in 1958 not as a truck but rather as a big, weighty engine producing high torque at low RPMs. And this engine was never designed for the light-duty tasks of transporting kids to a Saturday morning soccer game or hauling a couple of bags of potting soil and some plants. No, this beast of an engine worked and was usually found only in industrial-type vehicles such as buses, dump trucks, garbage trucks and cement mixers.
Forty years later, the first Ford Super Duty F-250 model would seem a fitting way to honor an engine similarly designed for heavy lifting and hard work.
Towing capacity is what matters
Ford says, “90 percent of all Super duty trucks are purchased by customers who tow often.” That’s the main reason truck marketing, and particularly Ford Heavy Duty ads, emphasize towing capacity. But just how much can they tow? 12,500 pounds – and that’s just for starters.
Pretty much across the board, any 2015 Super Duty F250 sporting a 6.2 liter, gas, V-8 and a 3.73 gear ratio can tow 12,500 pounds using a standard hitch and ball setup, regardless of cab configuration . The only exceptions being the Super Cab 4×4 and Crew Cab 4×4 which max out at 12,400 pounds and 12,200 pounds, respectively.
Jump up to a 6.7 liter, Power Stroke Turbo Diesel V-8, however, and that towing capacity increases to 14,000 pounds for both the Super Cab and Crew Cab configurations. Add a 5th wheel gooseneck towing configuration and towing capacities climb higher still, topping out at 16,600 pounds for the Power Stroke Diesel, 4×2 with a 3.31 axle ratio.
Which one of these is not like the others?
The Ford Super Duty F250 differs from its truck family members on both ends of the scale mainly in towing capacity. For example, the 2015 F150 has a maximum towing capacity of 12,200 pounds, while a diesel F350 or 450 can tow north of 26,000 pounds or 31,000 pounds, respectively, as compared to the F250 topping out at close to 17,000 pounds.
The F250’s distinct chrome-bar style grille featuring a huge Ford emblem, big telescoping mirrors, available roof clearance lights also give the Ford Super Duty F250 a look that helps further distinguish it from its less-powerful sibling.
This might not be the truck for you.
The Ford Super Duty F250 isn’t necessarily the right choice for every pickup truck driver out there. Its main attraction is power – for both towing and hauling. Before you make a purchase decision based solely on that enticing “more power” characteristic, make sure you actually need all the horsepower that comes with an F250. Maybe you, and your wallet, would be happier with an F150? Whatever you decide, know that you’re not going to be disappointed by the best-selling truck in America.
Editor’s note: If you’re searching for Ford Super Duty F250 parts or accessories, stop by Advance Auto Parts for everything your truck needs. Buy online, pick up in store, and get back to the garage.
What makes these cars look so amazing?
Of course, a lot of it has to do with inherent styling excellence. Any Porsche 911’s going to turn some heads based on its iconic sheet metal alone; ditto the C2 Chevrolet Corvette and countless other models I could mention.
But if you take a closer look, you’ll see there’s a pretty common denominator:
Perfectly smooth, impeccably polished chrome.
You’ll see it shining under the hoods of all those old American muscle cars. Check out the bumpers, too, and you’ll see mirror finishes front and back. Bottom line? You’re not gonna win any prizes if your chrome’s not correct. And for me, it’s just a point of pride in general — when I look at my car in the garage, I want to see that chrome shining right back.
If you’re with me on that, then you’re gonna want to fix up your chrome from time to time. The process is called re-chroming, and it’s something every classic-car buff needs to know about. So let’s run through a quick Rechroming 101 course together, whether it’s an introduction for you or just a refresher.
How Do They Do It?
Chroming, or technically chrome plating, is just a particular way of finishing a surface. The craftsman starts by cleaning the part’s existing surface thoroughly, and then he “dips” the part in a chrome-plating vat that’s filled with a chromium-based solution. Through a process known as electroplating, electrical current is used to dissolve the chromium atoms and “plate” them onto the surface. The thickness of the plating is determined by how long the craftsman leaves the part in the vat. Once the desired thickness has been achieved, boom — you’ve got your re-chromed surface. Hey, I’m no scientist, but in a nutshell, that’s more or less how it works.
Popular Cars and Car Parts for Re-Chroming
Although chrome continues to be featured on some modern cars, it’s more common among the older cars you tend to see at the shows. Chrome bumpers, for example, are pretty much dead and gone these days, unless you count a handful of pickup trucks. And good luck finding chrome headers under the hood; you’re more likely to see a bunch of molded plastic engine covers. When I think of cars that are candidates for re-chroming, I think of the classics — Mustangs, Corvettes, Chevelles, and certainly European luminaries like Ferraris and Lamborghinis if your budget allows.
As far as specific car parts go, you’ve got the bumpers and headers that I already pointed out, but it doesn’t stop there. Wheels are a big one, of course, and since they’re so close to the road with all its dust and debris, they’re gonna need more frequent attention than other parts. Chrome grilles, too, are in a vulnerable spot; you’ll often see pitting and tarnishing up there.
But more broadly, just think about that C2 Corvette I mentioned, for example — there’s chrome everywhere! You’ve got those iconic side-exit exhaust pipes, the fuel flap on the rear deck and various other exterior parts, not to mention all the chrome switches and knobs inside. Back in the day, chrome was a much more significant part of car styling, so if you want to make your classic car tip-top, you might have a real laundry list of parts that need to be re-chromed.
Have You Had Any Car-Parts Rechromed?
You know I’m always looking for people’s real-world experience with the stuff I write about. Have you re-chromed any of your car parts before? Tell us any tips you have in the comments.
Editor’s note: Check out Advance Auto Parts for a wide selection of chrome parts and accessories. Buy online, pick up in-store.
If you’re a fan of cars and see something cool, you’ll want to have it, whether it’s a monster engine or a cutting-edge body design. And, if you’re an enthusiast, there is no cure. This is a permanent condition.
Here are examples. If Europeans have a 500 horsepower hatchback, well, we want it in the United States. Meanwhile, the US has 800-horsepower V8s and so the Europeans want these rocket ships. Then, American enthusiasts want German-made accessories – and the beat goes on, the wheel keeps spinning – and the best part is that this craze for the coolest will never end. That’s what keeps the car world’s heart beating and technology advancing.
German experience without the passport
A trip to Germany could cost you in the thousands – even tens of thousands – but we’ve found a better way: Southern Worthersee. SoWo is a true destination show that helps European car lovers in America get together for the German experience, perhaps even including a bit of schnitzel.
This weekend is all about Bugs, Things, and Golf(s), but most German makes are welcomed in town, just not in the show field. That area is reserved exclusively for Volkswagen group cars like Audi, VW and Porsche, for the brand purists in all of us.
Mountain river tubing and epic scenic drives – and of course, German cars and Southern hospitality – combined to bring more than 20,000 people to the hills of Helen, Georgia for SoWo 9 on May 16th and 17th. The streets of this small town were packed end to end with vendors from homegrown designer brands to globally famous tuning brands. VW joined the fun with their motorsports toys from the stable, giving fans a rare up-close and personal look.
For even more SoWo, here is our coverage of SoWo 2013.
Future of SoWo
Southern Worthersee is widely considered one of the best VW shows in existence today. You may hear that some rowdy show goers and enthusiastic locals, plus a few too many tire peels, may have put this show’s bright future in jeopardy. We will stay tuned in hopes that it ultimately continues in some form, as it’s truly a rare opportunity in life to share your classic European car in the Americas.
More photos from SOWO 2015:
Check your oil, coolant, and transmission fluid levels often and change them according to the vehicle manufacturer’s maintenance schedule. That message has been drilled into drivers’ heads since the days of Drivers Ed 101, and with good reason. Fluids are a vehicle’s lifeblood, and over time, they are depleted and also wear out.
But what about the so-called “forgotten fluids,” the ones you don’t hear about every day? Their function is just as important as the previously mentioned three fluids, but they can’t provide protection unless their levels are checked often and they are replaced frequently.
Providing protection in the form of lubrication is what comes to most people’s minds when they think about their engine oil, transmission fluid and other lubricants. But that’s just one of a fluid’s many purposes. They also contain detergents designed to trap contaminants and hold them in suspension until they’re removed during the next fluid change, thereby preventing the contaminants from adhering to the surface of the very parts the fluid is designed to protect. Transmission fluid is a good example of a high detergent fluid because of its ability to remove and hold contaminants. Many old-school mechanics, backed by a healthy dose of modern online chatter in vehicle forums, even advocate adding some ATF to the engine before an oil change. The theory is that the ATF’s high detergent levels deliver a superior cleaning performance, removing contaminants and buildup that can affect engine performance. Do you agree? Have you ever tried this? If so, what were the results? (Let us know in the comments.)
Since transmission fluid probably isn’t one that you’ve been neglecting, let’s focus instead on the four forgotten fluids – transfer case, differential, brake, and power steering. If you’ve been neglecting any of these, it could be time for a vehicle fluids checkup.
Transfer case fluid
Vehicles with four-wheel or all-wheel drive have a transfer case on the back of the transmission. Its job is to direct power to the vehicle axles. Because it’s filled with rotating gears that are doing some heavy lifting and need constant lubrication, it needs to contain the right amount, type and quality of transfer case fluid.
Just like your vehicle’s other vital fluids, transfer case fluid degrades over time and needs to be changed. How often depends on a couple factors, including manufacturer’s-recommended guidelines and driving conditions.
Using a ’04 F150 with a 5.4 liter Triton V-8 and four-wheel drive as an example, Ford recommends changing the transfer case fluid at 150,000 miles. Shorter change intervals are recommended if the vehicle is driven through water, such as during stream crossings or when launching or retrieving a boat. That’s because there’s a chance water could seep into the transfer case and degrade the fluid’s lubricating properties sooner.
Because wheels on the same axle don’t always turn at the same speed, every axle needs a differential. On front wheel-drive vehicles, the differential may be housed within the transmission and utilize the transmission fluid. On rear-wheel drive vehicles there’s a differential in the back, and on four-wheel drive vehicles there can be three differentials – one in the front, center and rear.
And, just like the transfer case fluid, differential fluids have to keep all those turning gears and parts lubricated and moving freely. Fortunately it too is usually a high-mileage interval change, but consult and follow specific vehicle-manufacturer recommendations to be sure.
Brake fluid is hygroscopic. Simply put – it attracts moisture. That’s its weakness and the reason it needs to be changed according the manufacturer’s specs. That’s also why, in addition to convenience, the under-hood reservoir is usually see-through, so the level can be checked without removing the cap and exposing the brake fluid to more moisture in the atmosphere. Interestingly, and helping prove the case in point about forgotten fluids, Ford’s online resource that lists the maintenance schedule for an F-150 includes no mention of ever changing the brake fluid, which appears to be an oversight on their part. All brake fluid isn’t the same either so don’t just grab anything off the shelf. Most manufacturers are using DOT 3 or DOT 4 brake fluid, but find out for sure what’s recommended for your vehicle because those brake fluids can’t be mixed with DOT 5 fluid. Here’s why.
DOT 3 and 4 brake fluids are glycol based whereas DOT 5 is silicone based, containing at least 70 percent silicone by weight. Because of its higher boiling point, DOT 5 is often specified for applications that include military vehicles and high-performance race cars. Unlike other brake fluid, it also doesn’t attract moisture and won’t damage vehicle paint if accidently spilled. Before you go out and purchase a bottle of DOT 5 brake fluid however, know that it can only be used when specified by the vehicle manufacturer. Mixing it with other types of brake fluid can lead to system corrosion and failure, and it isn’t compatible with anti-lock brake systems.
Further confusing the naming system is DOT 5.1 brake fluid. This category was created to include glycol-based brake fluid with performance characteristics similar to silicone-based DOT 5 fluid, despite the fact that it doesn’t include any silicone. Unfortunately many people understand – incorrectly – the 5.1 as signifying some sort of connection to silicone-based DOT 5, further confusing the situation. Think of DOT 5.1 as a DOT 4 brake fluid that performs like a DOT 5 brake fluid. Is that as clear as a dirty fluid?
Power steering fluid
Some manufacturers and mechanics say power steering fluid never needs to be changed while others have specific mileage- and/or time-based intervals. All will agree, however, that the level needs to be checked periodically to prevent damage to the power steering pump and to avoid a situation where you’re forced to try and steer a vehicle whose power-steering has failed. Take it from me, it’s nearly impossible, and dangerous. That’s why I’m of the opinion that it’s a lot less expensive to replace my power steering fluid than it is a power steering pump so why not show it some love with a change out every so often?
If you’re guilty of forgetting fluids, take comfort in the fact that you’re not alone. Consult the owner’s manual that’s in your glovebox or available online, ask your mechanic, and check your fluid’s levels and ages. You’ll save money in the long run and drive with peace of mind.
Editor’s note: Stop by Advance Auto Parts for the fluids, parts and tools you need to finish your projects. Buy online, pick up in store, in 30 minutes.
From timeless icons to everyday essentials, Crucial Cars examines the vehicles we can’t live without.
In this installment, Street Talk pays tribute to a street-racing icon in the twilight of its career: the Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution.
As recently as seven years ago, it was unthinkable that the Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution could be on its last legs. Fully redesigned for 2008, the Evo built on its legendary rally-car heritage with even more turbocharged power and its most sophisticated all-wheel-drive system yet. Dubbed “Evo X,” it graced the cover of seemingly every magazine in the industry, promising near-supercar performance for the price of an entry-level BMW 3 Series.
But then the Great Recession arrived, severely depressing demand for thirsty thrill-machines. In point of fact, Mitsubishi didn’t even build any Evos for 2009.
And when the economy eventually rebounded, the Evo X just couldn’t get back on its feet.
So here we are in 2015, preparing to bid sayonara to one of Japan’s true performance juggernauts. Let’s give the Evo a curtain call by remembering what made it great.
Invincible AWD Handling
The rally-derived Evo has always utilized a fancy AWD system to optimize handling, but in the United States, we didn’t get the full treatment until the Evo X arrived. The big news was the debut of Active Yaw Control (AYC), an electronically controlled feature that automatically transfers torque to the wheels that have the most traction. It was a revelation on the road, eliminating understeer in tight corners and making the Evo feel like it was quite literally on rails. Not many cars in the world could keep up, regardless of price.
Of course, some Americans were a bit miffed that they had to wait so long for an unadulterated Evo to arrive. In Japan, AYC had been offered since the mid-’90s, going back to the Evo IV, but Mitsubishi didn’t sell the car stateside till the Evo VIII turned up in 2003 — and neither that car nor its successor, the Evo IX, had AYC. Still, one spirited drive was typically all it took to heal those wounds. The Evo X stands as one of the best-handling cars ever created, and we can only hope that there’s a reborn Evo XI somewhere in Mitsu’s future.
A remarkable fact about the Evo is that it has been extremely fast forever, dating back to the Evo I’s debut in 1992. That car carried a 2.0-liter turbocharged 4-cylinder engine that pumped out nearly 250 horsepower, and by the time the Evo III came out in 1995, the turbo-4 was up to 270 horsepower, which is roughly where it’s been ever since.
Technically, the Evo X’s 2.0-liter turbo-4 is from a new aluminum-block engine family, supplanting its iron-block predecessors. It’s also rated at a slightly higher 291 hp. But in terms of real-world acceleration, an Evo is an Evo, regardless of vintage. Plus, the older iron-block design is more receptive to major modifications. The one thing the Evo X really has going for it in the powertrain department is its available dual-clutch automated manual transmission, which rips off ultra-quick shifts that no stick-shift driver can match.
The Evo’s full name is “Lancer Evolution,” underscoring its sensible origins as a compact Lancer sedan. Indeed, this sports-car-shaming dynamo is nearly as practical as a Corolla in daily driving, from its reasonably roomy backseat to its serviceable trunk. Sure, you could get a Nissan GT-R for three times the price, but it’s a glorified two-seater that feels bulkier besides. Naturally, the Evo’s impeccable handling comes at a cost in the ride-quality department, but we’ve never heard enthusiastic owners complain.
Have You Driven an Evo?
If you haven’t, go try one at your Mitsubishi dealer before it’s too late. This is a bucket-list kind of car. And if you have, what were your impressions? Give us some highlights in the comments.
Editor’s note: Whether you drive a foreign or domestic vehicle, count on Advance Auto Parts to keep your projects on track. Buy online, pick up in-store.
According to the Detroit News, General Motors is recalling approximately 469,000 of its Chevy Malibus, model years 2011-12, due to seat belt issues.
The article states:
The flexible steel cable that connects the safety belt to the vehicle can fatigue and separate over time. Dealers will replace the outboard lap mounting bracket to relocate the tensioner slightly rearward. Dealers will inspect the cable and, if necessary, replace the lap pretensioner.
Further, according to the story, “GM knows of 36 claims, no crashes or fatalities and one minor injury reportedly related to the condition — when a taxi driver bumped his head.”