Celebrating 15 Million Speed Perks Members

When we started Speed Perks two years ago, we couldn’t have imagined that we’d hit 15 million members. Thanks to you, we’ve done it! To join us in the celebration, take a look at what our dedicated community of drivers have achieved.

Speed Perks 15 million member Infographic

We’re blown away by how much work our Speed Perks Members do on their cars. Without a doubt, they’re the kind of DIYers we’d like to have as neighbors. If you’re not a member, join now!

Talkin’ Carbs…As In Carburetors vs. Fuel Injection

1970 Camaro Z28 350

1970 Camaro Z28 350

Back in the day, “the day” being the thousands from the mid-1950s through the early 1970s, American performance cars’ fuel delivery system of choice was four-, six- or even eight-barrel carburetion. More often than not you saw a single four-barrel sitting atop the engine’s intake manifold. But a trio of two-barrel carburetors (called “Tri-power” and “Six pack” among other cool sounding names) could be had on some Detroit iron during the ’60s and ’70s, such as the Pontiac GTO, Chevy Corvette, Plymouth Road Runner and Dodge Challenger.

For monsters such as the early ’60s Impala SS409 and the ’67 Shelby GT500 Mustang, nothing less than two four barrel carbs (“dual quads”) would do. Carburetors were not without their pitfalls, however, as tasks like changing jets, synching those multi-carb setups and generally getting them perfectly dialed in were usually best left to a shop with all the necessary tools and expertise.

Pontiac 389 V8 Tripower

Pontiac 389 V8 Tripower

Fuel injection in those early years was very rare, but available on a handful of American cars during some of those years. For example, certain 1957 GM products from Chevrolet and Pontiac offered it just that one year.

As fuel injection was relatively new technology, the bugs weren’t fully worked out so it was dropped as an (admittedly expensive and not popular) option for the full size GM cars the very next year. It did, however, continue to be optional on the Corvette, right through 1965.

As performance-themed American cars passed through the 1980s, fuel-injection came online bigtime.

Thanks to their ability to monitor and make millisecond adjustments for various parameters such as intake air temperature and idle quality, these modern-era F.I. systems were instrumental in bringing back performance after the dark days of the mid-’70s to early ’80s. Being able to precisely control the air/fuel mixture, they allowed engineers to fine tune the engine to both meet tough emissions standards and offer increased power output. Other benefits are smoother operation all around, such as when driving in high elevations and in very cold or hot weather.

fast efiWhich all brings us to the question of: should you have an older performance car, should you keep the old carbs or make the switch to fuel injection? Unless you want to keep your ride 100 percent factory correct for seriously judged shows and such, we’d suggest jumping aboard the injection express.

These “self-tuning” systems offered by Edelbrock, FAST, Holley and MSD will have your ride always operating at peak efficiency without you needing to scrape knuckles and waste precious weekend time. And no worries about having that classic engine compartment ruined with something that looks like a Flux Capacitor, as these systems mimic the iconic look of a big four-barrel carb. So go ahead, put on that original chrome-lidded air cleaner with the engine call-out sticker on it, we won’t tell if you don’t.

Best of all, these state of the art systems make for a fairly simple, bolt-on proposition, essentially the same effort as swapping out carburetors minus the subsequent tuning. After you’ve bolted the system in place, you then enter basic information such as engine size and camshaft specs into a hand-held controller, which gives the system its base-line operating parameters. One twist of the key usually fires up your engine and then you’re smoothly off and running.

As you drive your car, the system’s ECU (Electronic Control Unit) continuously fine tunes itself according to information it picks up from the oxygen sensor. No more rough idling, no more cold-weather stumble. Indeed, according to this article in Hot Rod magazine it couldn’t be easier “No jets, no adjustments, no laptops—just bolt it on and turn the key.”

Editor’s note: You can get your carbs in order and save big at Advance Auto Parts. Buy online, pick up in-store in 30 minutes.
Jim Kazliner, Editor-In-Chief

Speed Perks: No cards, No points, No Nonsense.

Hey DIY Garage Readers—

I wanted to take a minute in between our regular blog schedule to tell you about a new program Advance offers that actually rewards you for working on your car.

Speed Perks is not your run-of-the-mill rewards program. First, there are no confusing rules, qualifications, or unworkable expiration dates to contend with. Better yet, you don’t have to deal with any complicated passwords, membership cards, or lengthy phone calls to have your password reset when you forget it (how many times has that happened?).

Instead, all you need to become a Speed Perks member is a phone number and an email address. That’s it. Done.

And getting rewarded is even easier. Here’s how it works:

  • For every $30 purchase, you’ll get $5 to spend on a future purchase of $10 or more
  • For every $100 purchase, you’ll get $20 to spend on a future purchase of $40 or more
  • You’ll get your rewards within a week by email or text
  • Speed Perks members will also receive exclusive deals and special offers

We all know how gratifying it is to work on our own vehicles and take on new car projects. So why not get rewarded for doing just that? Speed Perks makes purchasing the parts and tools you use most even more worthwhile.

Enroll in Speed Perks today and get rewarded — online and in-store.

Jim Kazliner
Editor-in-Chief

 

Speed Perks ad

Exclusive Coverage: DuPont Registry HQ Cars & Coffee

DuPont 4

The crisp morning air greets a diligent car fan on a Saturday morning when the garage opens at 6:14 AM. It’s time for DuPont Registry Headquarters Cars & Coffee in St. Petersburg, Florida. The early morning car fanatic pulls off a cover and backs the 1965 introductory-year Porsche 911 onto the driveway. A quick dust off and it’s ready to go. This car doesn’t see the light of day often but the roads are quiet and the crowds are calm, so there’s no better time than now.

What is the DuPont Registry Headquarters Cars & Coffee event? Let us set the scene.

The DuPont Registry website lists “highline luxury cars for sale by auto dealers and private owners. In addition, consumers can search for wheels, car accessories, tuning, racing schools, exotic car rentals, and a wide variety of products/services for the enthusiast.” On certain designated days – such as the Cars & Coffee event held most recently on Saturday, July 18, 2015 – you can visit the physical location and see luxury cars, up close and in person.

DuPont 9We attended that event and had a chat with the organizers of the ten-year-strong show. Its success and popularity originally came through word-of-mouth advertising. While an event now typically draws in a few hundred cars, DuPont Registry doesn’t charge admission – not even for parking. They also give back to the community, allowing a local church to join them to sell coffee and doughnuts to the crowd.

DuPont 18Popularity of the events, organizers tell us, definitely has seasonal cycles. Fall and spring are busy times, while the winter and dead of summer are for diehards only. During more well-attended events, organizers have their work cut out for them. Not only do the local law enforcement need to be on board, but fans have to behave appropriately.

The good news: Cars & Coffee at DuPont has no end in sight. As long as the fans keep the cars on the road and the sheriff is on board, the show will go on.

More Cars & CoffeeDuPont 3

Across the country, Cars & Coffee monthly car meets have been popping up at an incredible rate. In fact, some popular events have even outgrown their venues, including one of the most highly acclaimed Saturday morning shows, located in Irvine, California. As the event kept growing, it outgrew its humble location in 2015, becoming too massive to remain a calm and fun-for-everyone event.DuPont 20

Cars & Coffee events offer a unique atmosphere that is addicting for car lovers who want to see the rare and eclectic – and to talk to the owners of these uncommon cars (and bikes!) who truly treasure them. One of the bigger events is the Amelia Island Concours d’Elegance.

The best part of one of these shows: meeting new people and hearing the story about a car, where it came from, where’s it been. Give someone a good cup of coffee and a few doughnuts, and you’ll have that person talking in no time.DuPont 14

Looking towards the future

Coming up this fall, the DuPont Registry Headquarters will host another type of event because, when Mr. DuPont wants more shows, his team will deliver. You can count on that.

Here’s a hint … just think cars, stars, and a show fit for the big screen.

Editor’s note: So what if your daily driver isn’t as glamorous as the ones shown above. You can still ensure it rides right and looks good with parts and tools from Advance Auto Parts. Buy online, pick up in-store in 30 minutes.

All About Karting Vehicles (some call them go karts!)

Go kart 2

Today’s go karts are anything but greasy kids stuff. Read on to discover what makes these these mechanically impressive machines tick.

Some people love go kart racing – simply called “karting” by the true blue fans – because of the competition. Others love it for the family atmosphere at events. Still others love it because of the vehicles themselves – and, if you’re a DIYer, you’ll probably want to know just how these racing machines are constructed.

Recreational participants sometimes construct their own vehicles, while competitive racers must purchase factory-made ones. It’s all about safety. Racers on big tracks reach speeds of up to 152 miles per hour in professional-grade karts that typically weigh 165 to 175 pounds (75 to 79 kilograms).

Here’s more…

Engines

“The TaG division,” says John Ferris, president of the World Karting Association, “is the most popular. TaG stands for ‘touch and go’ and its vehicles have an electric start, like a car, while the other divisions need an external starter, like Indy cars. TaG vehicles have water-cooled engines, while the rest have air-cooled ones.”

Typically, backyard / amusement park karts are powered by 4-stroke engines or electric motors, while racing karts use small 2-stroke or 4-stroke engines. “All classes of racing,” John says, “allow the owner to work on the engine – or to hire someone else to do so – by putting in new pistons or rings and the like. Some classes allow for rebuilding of engines that include modifications to make the kart go faster.”

The sport has evolved over the years and here is just one way in which that’s true. “Classes that allow modifications used to be the most popular,” John explains. “In these open classes, you could modify however you wanted – at least within certain limits. Local Saturday tracks, sometimes called outlaw tracks, still have those classes, but there is no tinkering in the big races. Those races are like NASCAR with strict specifications for engines.”

When people do modify engines, they typically take a factory built one and bring the specs up to the limits, perhaps by raising ports – or by lowering ports. “You can’t add extra ports,” John cautions, “because you need to use stock engines.”

More specifically:

  • 4-stroke engines are typically air-cooled, with about 5 to 20 HP. Manufacturers include Briggs & Stratton, Tecumseh, Kohler, Robin and Honda.
  • More powerful 4-stroke engines are manufactured by Yamaha, TKM, Biland and Aixro (Wankel), offering up 15 to 48 HP.
  • 2-stroke engines are built by WTP, Comer, IAME (Parilla, Komet), TM, Vortex, Titan, REFO, TKM, PRD, Yamaha and Rotax, ranging from about 8 HP for a single-cylinder 60 cc unit to more than 90 HP for a twin 250 cc.
  • The most popular classes use TaG 125 cc units, which are electronically limited to 16,000 RPM.

Suspension

Karts do not come with any sort of suspension system. In fact, shock absorbers and springs are banned from the vehicles, according to John. “Instead,” he says, “the frame of the vehicle itself serves as suspension. A kart’s chrome tubing creates spring and flex, allowing the vehicle to spring and come back.”

Chassis

Although the chassis needs to be flexible enough to serve as suspension, as mentioned above, it must also be stiff enough not to break. In general, a stiffer chassis is preferable for dry conditions, while a more flexible chassis is preferable in wet and/or other poor traction conditions.

To find which chassis – and accompanying engine – is appropriate for World Karting Association events, see the chart at the bottom of this page.

Transmission

Because karts do not have a differential, the chassis is designed so that the inside rear tire lifts off the ground when cornering. “Karts are intentionally designed this way for speed,” John says, “so the inside tire doesn’t slow you down when you race. You may not notice as the tire lifts when you corner, but it does.”

Tires

Tires and wheels are significantly smaller than on a typical car, with Bridgestone, Dunlop and Maxxis making tires, along with kart-specific manufacturers such as MG, MOJO and Vega. Just like with cars, there are different types of tires for varying weather conditions. On a dry track, slicks are appropriate. Slicks range from very soft compositions that provide maximum grip to much harder ones that are longer lasting but provide less grip.

Rain tires are used in wet weather, and are also known as “wets.” These are narrower tires than slicks and are not permitted in all racing classes. John points out that many organizations specify how soft your tires are allowed to be.

MiscellaneousGo Kart

More sophisticated karts contain monitoring systems that keep track of RPM, lap timing, number of laps, best lap, cooling system temperature, exhaust gas temperature, g-force (lateral and longitudinal acceleration), throttle position, steering wheel position, brake pressure and more.

DIY

If you’re interested in building your own kart for recreational karting, Popular Mechanics offers advice. This article shares how you can build your own kart for $689.15 in just one day, offering sites that provide the materials and resources that you’ll need. Remember that, if you’re interested in more serious racing, homemade karts are not permitted.

Editor’s note: Advance Auto Parts has the tools and accessories for most moving vehicles–at great savings and values. Buy online, pick up in-store in 30 minutes.

Photos courtesy of World Karting Association.

 

 

Mudding Anyone?

Truck mudding photoOur resident Gearhead gets down and dirty with the fine art of Mudding.

Remember when you were a little kid and the idea of playing in the mud outside after it rained got you hyped? Pushing your toy cars and trucks through the mud puddles while you did your best to enunciate the sound of a beefed-up engine was one of life’s simple joys. Well, now you’re a grown-up with a rugged four-wheel-drive rig and maybe you want to kick up some summer mud, albeit on a much grander and exciting scale. Here’s a video that gives you a taste of what a blast this sub-category of off-roading can be.

Jeep_Wrangler  photoChoose your weapon
To probably nobody’s surprise, the most popular mud tamer is the modern-day Jeep Wrangler and its very similar old-school forebears, Jeep’s CJ-5 and CJ-7. Compact dimensions, plenty of ground clearance, stout four-wheel-drive components and room in the wheel wells for large off-road tires are key reasons these iconic Jeeps reign supreme.

But they are far from the only good choices. Older Toyota Land Cruisers (the more basic four-door SUV styles as well as the Jeep-like FJ40) are very capable and durable rigs, as are the first- and second-generation Ford Broncos. Of course, 4WD pickup trucks are solid picks too, though the massive, full-size ones can sometimes prove too bulky in off-road environments with narrow trails. As such, we favor compact, more maneuverable pickups such as the Ford Ranger, Nissan Frontier and Toyota Tacoma. One might also consider a Land Rover Defender, though aces off road, they tend to be rather pricey.1988_Toyota_Land_Cruiser photo

Mudding 101
Depending on the scenario, simply popping your truck into 4WD and driving on through the muck as if you’re on pavement may not be sufficient. As with any type of challenge, there are proper techniques that separate the hackers from those that know what they’re doing. As such, thanks to the pros at off-road.com, fourwheeler.com and allstate.com, we’ve come up with a six-pack of tips to make sure that you move through the mud.

1) Don’t go it alone. Having at least one other person with a truck and recovery gear (such as a powerful winch) provides peace of mind, as well as a helping hand (and truck) should you get stuck.

2) Air down your tires. Lowering your tires’ pressure increases surface area and allows the tires to flex and grab traction better than when they’re fully-aired up for on-road use. Dropping down to 18 to 20 psi should be about right.

3) If it looks like a rather deep mud puddle / bog you’re attempting to negotiate, you might want to hop out and go on recon first. Grab a long stick and check it out on foot, poking the stick in various spots to get an idea of the mud’s consistency, its depth and if there are any large rocks or tree roots lying below in wait.

4) Take the proper line. If others are also having fun in the muddy playground, watch and take note of the line they’re taking as they work their way through. Usually going straight is best, but there may be some obstructions or stickier points that may dictate using a different, more traction-friendly line that somebody else has demonstrated.

5) If your vehicle has a low range, then start out in 4WD low. This will obviously maximize your traction and torque at the low speeds you’ll be using to make your way through the mud.

6) Take it easy. Throwing up 15-foot high rooster tails of muddy water at higher speed may look cool in commercials, but you could lose control and end up doing some damage or stalling out your engine. It’s slow and steady that wins this race. As the experts say and as with other types of off-roading, you should go as slow as possible but as fast as necessary to keep moving forward. Momentum, not speed, is your best friend here.

2004_Ford_Ranger photoMuddy buddies
So you’ve discovered that you really dig playing in the mud. Fortunately, so do a lot of other off-road enthusiasts. Reading the various online forums for tips on where to go, how to set up your vehicle and how to improve your skills will help you enjoy your mucked up adventures even more. We suggest also checking out enthusiast sites such as mudtrails.com and offroadworld.net, which are also great for finding new friends that share this dirty passion.

Editor’s note: After you’ve gotten your fill of summer mudding, be sure to hit up Advance Auto Parts for a wide selection of wash and wax products.

 

The Future is Now: Artificial Intelligence and Driverless Cars

Robotic cars photo“Self-steering will become a fringe taste – like baking from scratch and riding horses – but regarded as dangerous and socially irresponsible. It will be left to young men who are prone to high-risk behavior, a few type-A personalities with control issues, and some old people who just don’t like to change.” (D.C. Innes)

As of June 2015, there are 77 public-street permits in California for driverless cars, also called autonomous or self-driving cars. Not surprisingly, 48 of them are licensed to the Internet giant Google (up from just 23 in May 2015), with Tesla coming in second with 12 permits – and Mercedes-Benz having two. Google plans to test its 25 added permits on a new fleet of cars on private roads, transferring them to public roads later this summer.

Reasons for the push for driverless cars include that these vehicles are expected to:

• Reduce accidents

• Eventually eliminate most traffic congestion

• Decrease the need for highway expansion because these cars operate bumper-to-bumper at higher speeds, reducing fuel consumption and emissions

Currently, there are 306 people who are licensed to operate autonomous cars – and 202 of them are associated with Google. Sound like something you’d like to do? Here are guidelines for California drivers who’d like to be licensed for driverless cars.

Six accident reports have been filed with these driverless cars so far, five of which with Google’s vehicles. Google had already disclosed four of those accidents, stating that they happened because of human error, either the one in control of the driverless car or by another driver. The fifth accident happened in June and, since Google has committed to reporting these accidents, information will likely be forthcoming about that incident soon. Here are more specifics.

Drive via your smartphone — and much more

Take a look at this quote (and be prepared for some British spellings): “It SOUNDS like a scene from a James Bond film. BMW has revealed a car that can drive itself around a multistorey car park and then manoeuvre itself into a bay – all at the touch of a smartwatch. When the owner returns, weighed down with bags of shopping, the car will come and meet them.”

BMW calls this feature “remote valet parking” and they did the big reveal at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas earlier this year. Meanwhile, here is a demonstration of the current park assist feature available from BMW, which is still cool all by itself.

Another feature revealed by BMW at the Consumer Electronics Show involves a camera that’s embedded in the headline between the driver and passenger. And, if a phone call comes in, point a finger and move it towards the screen to answer the call. Move your finger to the right – and you’ve declined the call. If the screen is in music mode, you can adjust the volume by making a finger circle. Lost? Point two fingers at the screen to get directions home.

Robotic cars 3Sitting in the rear? You really can become a back-seat driver through your Samsung tablet. You can adjust the car’s temperature, the music or movie that’s playing or your seat’s position with just a few quick clicks.

Also revealed at the show was Driver Assist technology, in development by Hyundai. This technology tells drivers how to reach a destination, but “also displays upcoming street signs, warns the driver of other vehicles that are likely to cut them off, and helps them navigate difficult turns and exits with easy-to-follow arrows on the monitor. It also has a warning system that alerts the driver of pedestrians and animals in the car’s path and will automatically brake if they are too close.”

This car can also monitor drivers’ heart rates and pull itself over and call for emergency help if the driver suffers signs of a heart attack. For more on that subject, see our previous blog post titled Cars of the Future: Personalized Ambulances.

To put its money where its mouth is, Audi had its A7 Piloted Driving concept car drive to the Las Vegas Convention Center from Palo Alto, California, traveling for more than 550 miles without the human in the driver’s seat taking charge. The car safely changed lanes and passed other vehicles. The car can recognize SUVs, trucks and police cars, distinguishing them from more ordinary cars, and can spot pedestrians, even those partially blocked by parked cars.

All of this technology takes real computer power, so Audi invested in the Tegra X1 superchip that allows a car to “learn” how to drive via the computer’s training algorithm. Although the Tegra X1 is only the size of a thumbnail, it’s said to have the power of a room-sized supercomputer from only ten years ago.

 Mercedes-Benz displayed the F 015 Luxury in Motion concept, where passengers can rotate bucket seats to face one another while the car automatically drives, a seating arrangement not available since the days of horse and buggy. Door panel touchscreens allow passengers to make video calls, surf the web and post on social media. LED lighting on the outside of the vehicle tells pedestrians whether the car is being driven by a person (white lights) or autonomously (blue lights). Plus, the car can project a virtual crosswalk to let pedestrians know how to safely cross the street when near the vehicle.

All of this new technology can seem exciting – or scary. To calm fears, journalists were taken on a ride with a Volkswagen Passat with Cruise4U technology, which allows for autopilot steering, accelerating and braking.

What does the future hold for driverless cars?

Ford Motor Company is predicting that vehicles will have “fully autonomous navigation and parking” after 2025. Ford already has its own automated research vehicle, released at the end of 2013 in an experiment with State Farm Insurance and the University of Michigan to develop ways for cars to “’communicate with each other and the world around them to make driving safer’ and reduce congestion.”

This vehicle contains sensors that scan up to 200 feet of roadway, “using light in the same way that a bat or dolphin uses sound waves.” Meanwhile, some Ford cars can already send a signal when another vehicle has entered a driver’s blind spot, and the steering wheel vibrates when the driver is veering out of his or her lane.

IHS Automotive agrees that self-driving cars will debut for the average person around 2025, and predicts that, in the first year, about 2/10 of 1% of sales will be self-drivers. That would be about 230,000 cars of the projected 115 million car sales anticipated for that year. Within twenty years of their debut, IHS expects that driverless cars will account for about nine percent of car sales.

So, how are you feeling about all of this? Excited? Anxious to own a self-driver? Or, do you like driving too much?

About a year and a half ago, Advance Auto Parts talked to experts about automated vehicles, including Phil Floraday, senior web editor of Automobile Magazine. Phil open admitted that he wasn’t thrilled about the trend, saying that, “I want people to have the driving experience. Face it, at Automobile, we still like manual transmissions. We believe in man-machine interaction because of the amount of joy you can get from really good transmission, from really good brakes. You blend into the car and become like one.”

Fast forward to today. On June 22, 2015, WorldMag.com published an article by D.C. Innes, who is an associate professor of politics at The King’s College, titled The car of the future and our future in cars. Innes believes that, “Despite our love for the wheel, we may be drawn inexorably into going driverless.” He blames insurance companies, saying that carriers will most likely charge high premiums to people who want to steer their own vehicles.

The good news? It’s likely that people who do own driverless cars will see a significant reduction in their insurance premiums. Less likelihood of accidents = lower premiums.Robotic cars 1

Time of transition

The transition to driverless cars will be – and has already been – gradual. In 2013, we’d talked to Steve Garfink of Seer Communication. Steve consults with companies, research groups and governmental agencies that are focusing on the transition from human driving to autonomous driving. He shared a rating system where the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHSTA) lists five levels, some of which have already taken place:

• Level 0: no automation, with the driver needing to be in complete control of steering, braking and the like at all times

•Level 1: function-specific automation, where vehicles have at least one automated feature, such as adaptive cruise control, electronic stability control or pre-charged brakes, which help a driver brake more quickly

• Level 2: the combination of two or more autonomous technologies, such as adaptive cruise control and lane centering; in this level, a driver must be prepared to take manual control of his or her vehicle back at any time. Some of these technologies may only be workable in highway driving, in favorable weather conditions and the like.

• Level 3: in this level, drivers will not need to constantly monitor road conditions; rather, he or she will be given a reasonable amount of time to transition from the autonomous driving experience to the more traditional manual driving; in theory, a driver of a level 3 car would, according to Steve, presumably “be free to talk on the phone, text, read the paper, or do whatever else they want knowing they will have plenty of reaction time before they have to pay attention to the road.” When this type of driving becomes available, a long trip could become a productive time, without the “tension of navigating among the big rigs plying” the highway.

• Level 4: the vehicle can handle all “safety-critical driving functions,” and can simply provide destination/navigation information; this vehicle could be occupied or unoccupied.

Steve gave a couple more predictions:

• In California – and perhaps other places – there will be no new regulations until a vehicle reaches level 2.

• Drivers may treat level 2 vehicles, where a driver must be prepared to take back control at any time, as level 3, where more transition time from driverless to driver-controlled exists. It will be interesting, Steve says, to see the effects of that on road safety.

Editor’s note: What are your thoughts about driverless cars? Share them in the comments below! And know that, as cars evolve, Advance Auto Parts will keep providing you with what you need to maintain and upgrade your vehicles.

Have a Great Weekend…and Happy Fourth of July!

fireworks photoAll of us at Advance and the DIY Garage Blog wish you a joyous and safe Fourth of July!

(Make sure to let us know in the comments if you’ve got any DIY projects on the agenda.)

Jim Kazliner
Editor-in-Chief

Open-Air Driving: It’s What’s Hot for Summer

Ford Skyliner photoIn a couple of ways, cars that offer open air motoring are like ice cream. Most everyone likes them and they come in a lot of different flavors. Whether you’re cruising along an ocean boulevard in a classic drop top, chasing apexes in a modern sports car, or exploring rugged trails in an opened-up Jeep, these vehicles offer plenty of enjoyment no matter what your tastes are. And like a visit to Baskin Robbins, there’s bound to be a flavor you can’t resist. To this rusty ol’ Gearhead, it’s salted caramel every time.

Within the realm of the classics you’ll find a wide array of choices. There’s plenty here to move you, literally and figuratively. It might be a 1965 GTO ragtop with a 389 V8, a 4-speed stick and rumbling side-splitter exhausts that does it for you. Or, from the same era, maybe a Jaguar XKE roadster or Lincoln Continental convertible, with the former offering sexy styling wrapped around two seats and a sonorous straight six, and the latter boasting four “suicide” style doors, a magic carpet ride and room for five of your biggest friends.car power moonroof

But as you’ll soon realize, your options further range from taking just sips of air and sunshine overhead to fully gorging oneself via environmental exposure that’s second only to a motorcycle’s.

Just a breath of fresh air, please.
A sliding sunroof provides a taste of the outdoors via a panel in the roof that slides back, either manually (as in some older cars) or via power control. If the panel is made of glass, it is usually called a “moonroof” as it ostensibly allows one to view the moon and the stars at night even while closed. Back in the ’70s and ’80s, pop-up/removable sunroofs were a popular aftermarket installation.

Traditional (and not) convertible tops
And then there is the traditional soft top convertible, which when down leaves the whole upper portion of the car’s interior exposed, allowing its passengers to more fully enjoy the sun’s rays. These are usually power operated as well. Soft convertible tops (typically made of canvas or vinyl) have been around since the early days of the automobile.

Ford Mustang convertibleMore recently, retractable hardtops have become popular. Just as the name implies, this design offers the added comfort and security of a hardtop when the top is up. Lowered, it provides the same full top-down experience that a traditional folding soft top does. For those al fresco fans residing in the more inclement areas of the country, a retractable hardtop is great to have. The BMW Z4 roadster and newer 3 Series (which later became the 4 Series) convertibles both offer retracting hardtops, as do the Mercedes-Benz SLK and SL, and outgoing (2015) Mazda Miata.

And yet, this “best of both worlds” idea is not as new as one may think. Back in 1957 Ford brought out its Fairlane 500 Skyliner power retractable hardtop, while Peugeot beat it by some 20 years with its aerodynamic but somewhat grimly named 402BL Eclipse Decapotable in the 1930s. Unlike the Ford’s more complex, folding power top, that Peugeot model featured a simple one-piece top that manually dropped down into the trunk.

Take it all offJeep Wrangler photo
Easy there, we’re talking about full exposure here of the vehicular kind. And nobody does it better than Jeep with its Wrangler model. Like its CJ-series precursors, the Wrangler is usually the model one thinks of when the word Jeep is mentioned. Sure you can fold the soft top down (a rather involved and potentially nail-busting affair), or unbolt the unwieldy hard top (if that’s what your Wrangler is wearing) and leave it in the garage or back yard. But that only gives you standard top-down experience. Detach the doors and flip down the windshield and you’ll enjoy the thrill of maximum exposure that’s second only to that of a motorcycle.

Trans am bandit car photoThe ‘tweeners
Existing somewhere in the middle of all these are the T-roof and Targa-topped vehicles. The T-top (which consists of a pair of removable roof panels) debuted in the U.S. with the 1968 Corvette coupe. In the late 1970s and through the early 2000s, various Camaros, Firebirds and Mustangs offered a T-roof option, while the Japanese car makers joined the party in the ’80s and ’90s with the Toyota MR2 and Datsun/Nissan 280ZX/300ZX, among others.

Similar to the T-top in that it could quickly be manually removed and stowed within the car, the Targa top instead provided a one-piece removable roof panel (no center “T” bar) which ran the full width of the car, providing even more of a true convertible feel than the T-roof. Past and present cars that offer a Targa top include the Porsche 911 and 914, the Honda Civic del Sol, the Toyota Supra, Acura NSX, the current Corvette and various Ferrari, Lamborghini and McLaren models.

Editor’s note: Whether you drive an airy convertible or tinted limousine, count on Advance Auto Parts to keep your projects humming along all summer.

Top Aftermarket Accessories for Cooling Your Engine This Summer

Electric Car Fan photoThere’s one sure-fire way to ruin your day, engine, reputation under the hood, and road trip this summer. It’s fast, requires virtually no effort or planning, and happens to countless drivers every day. All you have to do is let your engine overheat because of insufficient cooling.

In this instance, I’m not talking about the more common, run-of-the-mill catastrophes usually behind a cooling system failure, including broken hoses or belts, insufficient coolant level, water pump or thermostat failure, or foreign object piercing the radiator.

Less dramatic, but equally effective at causing an engine to overheat, are scenarios in which a vehicle’s cooling system can’t dissipate enough heat fast enough to prevent an overheated engine. In most cases, it’s the result of an efficiency issue, even when everything on the cooling system is working properly. In other situations, modifications designed to coax more horsepower from the engine might also require changes to the cooling system because more horsepower usually equates to more heat generated.

Here’s a look at several add-on solutions to prevent engine overheating.

Performance radiator

There’s a reason copper and brass have historically been materials of choice in vehicle radiators. Copper is great when it comes to thermal conductivity, performing 50 percent better than radiator fins made from aluminum. And brass is durable. So why are aluminum radiators becoming all the rage in high-performance engines and even among vehicle manufacturers? Weight. Aluminum radiators weigh 10 to 15 pounds less than traditional radiators. And they compensate for the reduction in their material’s thermal conductivity with increased radiator surface area and coolant capacity, design, fin spacing and even tube size.

The larger the radiator’s surface area translates to greater airflow reaching more coolant which means improved cooling capability. The limiting factor here is the amount of space you have or can create in which to shoehorn in a larger radiator.Car radiator photo

Most radiators utilize a single-pass design – hot coolant comes in one side of the radiator, passes through, and exits out the opposite side. For increased cooling capacity, look at a dual-pass, horizontal-flow radiator. With this design, coolant passes through one half of the radiator, but instead of exiting, it then passes through the other half of the radiator, essentially making two passes instead of one.

Moving to a dual-pass radiator will probably also require a water pump upgrade because this radiator design places more demand on the pump. Which brings us to the topic of coolant speed. An aluminum radiator with larger diameter tubes is going to require an increase in the speed at which the water pump is moving coolant through the system. Your muscle car’s pulley-pump speed might have been sufficient when everything was stock from the factory, but any modifications made might now require changes to that speed and ratio.

In addition to tube size, high-performance aluminum radiators also have more fins, spaced closer together, for increased heat transfer from the coolant to the atmosphere.

Electric fans

Engine-driven fans can get the job done when you’re tooling down the highway at cruising speeds, but when you’re idling or fighting stop-and-go traffic – not so much. For increased cooling capacity, consider installing an electric fan, or two.

Unlike an engine-driven fan, an electric fan is going to generate enough airflow to sufficiently help cool the engine, regardless of engine RPMs or traveling speed. In addition to consistent airflow, electric fans can also net you more horsepower. It’s estimated that engine-driven fans steal about 35 horsepower and clutch-driven fans about half that amount while electric fans only take about one horsepower.

Installing a dual-fan set up enables the entire radiator surface to be covered with cooling air flow. Another option is to use a two-fan system, but with one fan stationed in front of the radiator, pushing air to it, and a second fan behind the radiator, pulling air to it – remembering that pulling is always more efficient than pushing.

As for fan blade style, that depends on what’s more important to you – cooling or noise levels. Curved-bladed fans are quieter than straight-blade fans, but they don’t move as much air.

And in what’s probably beginning to sound like a reoccurring theme, a changeover from an engine-drive fan to an electric one might also require some beefing up of the vehicle’s electrical system to ensure it’s up to the task and increased loads.Car fan photo

Fan shroud

If you’re making the effort of adding an electric fan, make sure you go all the way and include an aluminum fan shroud. The right fan shroud can maximize the fan’s heat-reduction capacity by delivering cooling air to nearly every square inch of the radiator surface, while choosing aluminum helps deliver further weight reduction.

Type of Coolant

When it comes to the liquid flowing through the radiator, nothing’s better at heat transfer than plain old water. Unfortunately nothing also beats water when it comes to freezing in winter and destroying your engine, and corroding the radiator and inflicting a similar level of carnage there. If you are running straight water for coolant – some racing series require this – be sure to also include an anti-corrosion additive to the mix, and to take the necessary steps to prevent freezing before lower temperatures arrive. You’ll also need to research the benefits of using softened water if this is the somewhat risky route you choose to go. If, however, you choose to play it safe by using traditional antifreeze, also consider an additive, such as Red Line’s Water Wetter that prevents bubbles or vapor pockets from forming and helps bring temperatures down.

When it comes to summer driving, just remember – keeping your cool begins with your engine.

Editor’s note: Don’t blow your top…or your radiator cap this summer. Visit Advance Auto Parts for everything your engine needs to stay cool. Buy online, pick up in store, in 30 minutes.