You can’t drive down a road in America without spotting at least a handful of Ford F-150 trucks. No surprise, really; the F-150 has been our country’s best-selling truck for years (keep reading to find out how many Ford has sold). You’re all pretty familiar with these trucks, so tell us, did you know these facts about the F-150?
1) The great-great-grandfather to the F-150 was the Ford F-1 which debuted for 1948. It quickly became a favorite of farmers and small business owners. Despite its name, it never participated in a Formula 1 race.
2) The F-150 moniker itself debuted for the 1975 model year, as the name for Ford’s half-ton pickup which slotted between the lighter-duty F-100 and the heavier-duty F250. Massive popularity soon ensued.
3) How massive? So much so that the Ford F-Series has been not only the best-selling pickup for nearly 40 years running, but the best-selling vehicle for the last 34 years. It has consistently outsold such hugely popular rides as the Honda Accord and Toyota Camry.
4) The F-Series trucks are so popular that their total production comes in at a whopping 35 million trucks. Ford sells an F-Series truck every minute of every day and sold closer to a truck and a half per minute in 2015.
5) Long before it became the model name for its compact pickup truck introduced in the early ’80s, Ford used the “Ranger” label in the ’60s and ’70s to denote an upscale trim level of the F-Series.
6) Truck and motorcycle enthusiasts had a moment of zen when Ford offered a Harley-Davidson edition of the F-150 at various times through the late-1990s and into the 2000s. It sported plenty of black leather and shiny chrome trim in tribute to the iconic American motorcycle. High-rise handlebars and loud exhaust pipes, however, were not on the options list.
7) Do you remember the Ford F-150 Lightning? It’s hard to forget it. Initially available from 1993 through 1995 with a 240-hp, 5.8-liter V8, the Lightning came thundering back for 1999 after a three year hiatus sporting a supercharged 5.4-liter V8. Produced through 2004, that Ford muscle truck could sprint to 60 mph in as quick as 5.2 seconds.
8) 2016 F-150 marks the 68th year of the iconic truck. Keep ’em coming, Ford.
From timeless icons to everyday essentials, Marquee Motorcycles examines the bikes we can’t live without.
For this installment, Gearhead’s Garage puts the spotlight on Harley-Davidson’s iconic Sportster
Like the Chevrolet Corvette, the Harley-Davidson Sportster has been a part of America’s motoring landscape since the 1950s. And like the ‘vette, the Sporty has stayed true to its roots, in this case those consisting of a lean, powerful V-twin engine motorcycle that’s as happy cruising the boulevard as it is unraveling a twisty mountain road. And now, nearly 60 years later, Harley’s Sportster is still rumbling its way into the hearts of motorcycle enthusiasts from all corners of the globe.
Bikers British Invasion
No, we’re not talking about the Beatles, the Rolling Stones and the Who; that would take place the following decade. Rather, we’re referring to the one that English motorcycle makers made in the late ’40s and early ’50s. That’s when midsize, fast and nimble bikes from Triumph and BSA wooed American guys (and gals) away from the big heavy Harleys and Indians of the day. Seeing this, Harley brought out its middleweight K series for 1952.
The K, with its more modern suspension (telescopic forks up front and a shock-supported swingarm out back), lighter weight and foot (rather than hand) shifter, was a completely different animal for Harley. Although it was a pretty good effort, the K still fell short of the Brits in terms of overall performance and handling. That wouldn’t last much longer.
It was 1957. Elvis was rocking the airwaves with “All Shook Up” and “Jailhouse Rock”, “12 Angry Men” entertained moviegoers and Harley-Davidson showrooms introduced the Motor Company’s new baby, the Sportster XL. It looked very similar to the K, but differed in a few significant ways.
The engine now sported overhead valves and, although it measured the same 883 cc displacement, had a larger bore/shorter stroke design that provided better performance via its higher revving, better breathing nature. While most rivals used alloy cylinder heads, Harley, having had leakage problems with its earlier alloy heads, went with iron as the material of choice giving rise to the engine’s “Iron head” nickname.
The following year, the lighter, more powerful, competition-inspired XLCH version of the Sportster debuted. Wearing its small “Peanut” gas tank and staggered dual exhaust pipes, the XLCH, in addition to giving Harley a Brit-beating bike, provided a couple of iconic styling elements still used on some Sportster models to this day.
Age of Aquarius, Age of Disco
Apart from minor updates here and there not much changed with the Sportster until 1969. That year AMF, a large American manufacturing company best known for bowling balls, took over the company. Big cuts ensued, sadly giving Harley-Davidsons of the era a reputation for questionable build quality. Still, there were a few bright spots in the ensuing years. For 1972, the engine’s size went up to 1,000 cc while 1977 saw the debut of the coolest Sportster of the ’70s, the 1977 XLCR “Café Racer.”
Looking as if dipped in a vat of gloss black paint, the XLCR featured a small “bikini” fairing and a larger gas tank that flowed into a solo seat followed by a sleek tail section. Sadly, apart from an upgrade to triple disc brakes (versus single disc up front and a drum out back) and a two-into-one exhaust, the “Café Racer” Harley was otherwise mechanically identical to the standard Sportster. No performance cams, no higher compression, nothing to make it as scary fast as it looked. Yet despite Sportsters’ modest output of 61 horsepower, they were still good performers thanks to their big V twins’ plentiful torque supply.
1980s and ’90s
The AMF-owned era came to an end in mid-1981 when senior Harley-Davidson executives, including Willie G. Davidson, bought the company back. Now under ownership by proper motorcycle enthusiasts, Harley-Davidson would see advances in design, engineering and overall quality.
For the Sportster, notable milestones included the replacement of the Ironhead engine in 1986 with the all aluminum “Evolution” engine. Available in 883 cc and 1100 cc sizes, the Evolution was lighter, more durable and less prone to oil leaks than the old Ironhead. Two years later, the bigger Sportster engine was enlarged to 1200 cc.
Further updating the Sportster, a five-speed transmission replace the outdated four-speed for ’91, the same year that maintenance-free belt drive replaced the chain on the 883 Deluxe and all 1200 models. For ’93, the belt drive became standard on the base 883 as well, finally making the chain history. Wearing a larger, spoked front wheel, a solid disc rear wheel and chrome aplenty, the Sportster 1200 Custom dazzled Sporty fans for 1996. A performance version of the Sportster, dubbed the 1200S, debuted for ’98 boasting hotter camshafts, dual front disc brakes and an adjustable suspension.
Motoring into the new millennium
During the first decade of the 2000s, Harley made two of the most significant improvements the Sportster would ever see. Addressing a long-standing complaint regarding the bike’s excessive engine vibration (that some diehard Sporty fans saw as a rite of passage), the company replaced the previous metal-to-metal engine mounting points with rubber-cushioned units. That year also saw a new frame, newly integrated oil reservoir and battery compartments and, on some models, a larger 4.5-gallon gas tank that offered more riding range than the 3.3-gallon Peanut tank (which was itself larger than the original Peanut tank).
Fuel injection, with its perfectly metered, stumble-free fuel delivery, came online for 2007. The Sportster 883 and Sportster 1200 once again were offered in both standard and chromed-out Custom versions, but they were joined that year by the 1200 Low model. The latter featured a lowered suspension and seat height that made this big-engined Sportster ideal for shorter riders.
With its orange and black colors and dirt-tracker styling, the new for 2009 Sportster XR1200 paid homage to Harley’s XR750 racer of the ’70s. But it was more than styling fluff, as this performance-focused Sportster also featured a beefed-up engine with 91 horsepower (about 20 more than the standard 1200 engine), four-piston disc brakes and a sport-tuned suspension.
Ever the clever marketing company, Harley-Davidson has continued to bring out more themed Sportster models since then. Among them are the old-school custom flavored styled “Nightster”, “883 Iron”, “Forty-Eight” and “Seventy Two” models. The latter sports 1970’s chopper influenced styling touches including sparkly metal-flake paint, whitewall tires and a small Peanut gas tank with the same 2.1-gallon capacity as the one from the good old days. There’s even a new touring version of the Sportster, the Super Low 1200T, that comes with a large detachable windshield, plush seat and leather-covered hard saddlebags.
Need parts for your motorcycle? Shop the Advance Auto Parts Motorcycle Maintenance Center or stop by your local store today!
With All Hollows Eve here, we felt it was only appropriate to put together a list of our favorite scariest cars. It could be a car’s looks that make us shudder. Or, if the car is seemingly possessed by the devil himself, its personality would be more than enough to stop us from getting behind the wheel…or in front of its menacing grille. In other cases, it could be a vehicle’s performance that gives us the willies, whether it be as quick as a cat or as slow as a snail.
Here then, in no special order, are our Top 10 Scariest cars. Tell us in the comments section what you think and if you’d like to add your own favorites to the list.
The Plymouth Fury from “Christine”
With the perfect “face” for a Hollywood thriller, the 1958 Plymouth Fury that starred in this Stephen King movie might’ve said “the devil made me do it” after committing its various acts of terror. That is, if the car talked. Virtually indestructible, Christine had an axe to grind, and grind it she did. Now, every time we see a ’58 Fury at a car show, we steer clear because you just never know…
Early Porsche 911 Turbo
With its powerful engine sitting essentially behind the rear wheels, giving the car a decidedly rearward-biased weight balance, the Porsche 911 Turbo was known for being very unforgiving of unskilled pilots. Although it was generally a solid all-around performer, it had an evil side. If you went into a turn too fast and jumped off the gas and/or hit the brakes, the rear end could swing around faster than you could scream “snap oversteer!” As this Porsche supercar matured, suspension revisions and the adoption of stability control and all-wheel drive tamed the Turbo’s wicked tail.
Animal House Deathmobile
As if the hard-partying frat brothers featured in this movie weren’t scary enough (at least to the school’s professors and female students), they took a pristine mid-’60s Lincoln Continental and gave it a decidedly macabre makeover. Dubbed the “Deathmobile”, the formerly formal luxury car, obeying the hands and feet of its manic driver, wreaks havoc on the homecoming parade.
1920’s Argentine Funeral Car
Hearses are usually gloomy enough for most folks. But this coffin hauler takes it to a whole ‘nother level. Specifically, this custom-bodied coach sports flourishes of carved wood overlays that, to our eyes, emphasize the creepy vibe. Seemingly for comic relief from the specter of death, the car also features what looks like a stylish pompadour over the driver’s compartment.
Bugatti Veyron Super Sport
With a mind-bending 1,200 horsepower overflowing from its quad-turbocharged 16-cylinder engine, the mighty Veyron can rip to 60 mph in just 2.4 seconds. Provided you’ve got the conditions and the considerable nerve to keep your foot in it, this Veyron will obliterate the quarter mile in less than 10 seconds. Ignore the alarms clanging in your head and your rapidly increasing pulse rate and you’ll blast up to a top speed of over 250 mph. With such stupendous performance, the Veyron has been known to put more than a few butterflies in the stomachs of driver and passenger alike.
1950s-1960s air-cooled VW Bus
Using the same 24-50 horsepower engines as the Beatle of the same era, the VW bus understandably had trouble getting out of its own way. Although legions of Dead heads didn’t let it affect their mellow vibe as they went from concert to concert, this sluggish nature made the beloved Bus downright dangerous. With it taking about 26 seconds to run down a quarter mile, the vee-dub’s acceleration (if we may misuse that term) while trying to merge into fast-moving freeway traffic would be terrifying indeed.
“The Munsters” was a TV show that was popular in the 1960s and 1970s. Baby boomers will likely recall with fondness their family car. A custom creation that took the Frankenstein approach to car building, the Munster’s coach was comprised of three Ford Model T bodies along with a seriously built Ford 289 V8 engine. With its considerable presence (it was nearly 20 feet long), the Munster’s “Koach” made a fitting addition to the family of loveable monsters.
Green Goblin from Maximum Overdrive
Not one of Stephen King’s better known efforts, this mid-’80s horror flick featured machines — including lawn mowers, chain saws and hair dryers — that came to life and killed people. One of them was a black tractor trailer that had a cartoonish green goblin head affixed to its front end. As if running down people at a truck stop diner wasn’t bad enough, the sneering mask added greatly to the big rig’s creep-out factor.
A New York Taxi
Typically a Ford Crown Victoria, a NY cab can be a scary car indeed. But it’s not necessarily the car’s fault as much as it is simple physics. You just don’t want to get in its way, as its driver is charged with the nearly impossible task of consistently getting people to meetings and airports on time, despite the teeming masses of pedestrians, cyclists, skateboarders and other cars that clog the non-sleeping city’s streets at all hours of the day.
The Beast of Turin
Built to compete in the one-mile speed event in 1911, the Fiat S76, nicknamed the Beast of Turin, boasted a simply massive 28.5-liter, 300-horsepower four-cylinder engine. That means each cylinder displaced over 7 liters. To put it into perspective, just one of this Fiat’s cylinders boasts more volume than the total cylinder volume of a new Lamborghini Aventador’s V12. The Fiat’s giant engine made for a comically tall hoodline and a frighteningly loud and discordant exhaust. Check out the video here and you’ll see, and hear, what we mean. We cannot think of a vehicle more deserving of its nickname.
Have a safe and happy Halloween, folks!
From timeless icons to everyday essentials, Crucial Cars examines the vehicles we can’t live without.
For this installment, Gearhead’s Garage puts the spotlight on AMC’s entry in the Pony Car wars, the Javelin AMX
Largely overshadowed by the Chevrolet Camaro, Pontiac Firebird and Ford Mustang, (and to a lesser degree the Dodge Challenger and Plymouth Barracuda), the AMC Javelin AMX was akin to RC cola battling Coke and Pepsi. That doesn’t mean it was a bad choice in the Pony car segment (so-called because the Mustang is credited with starting this sporty segment back in 1964). Far from it, the Javelin AMX was just a different flavor. And plenty of performance enthusiasts found it downright sweet.
Note that we are talking about the four-passenger Javelin AMX here that was produced from 1971-1974, not the two-passenger version that was based on a shortened Javelin body/platform, just called the AMC AMX and produced from 1968-1970. Certainly the earlier version was cool in its own right, being the only American car of that time other than the Corvette to seat just two, but its appeal was limited and AMC made the decision to continue it after 1970 with the Javelin body and its backseat fully intact.
Cue it up
As it was now the top performance version of AMC’s Javelin, the 1971 AMX shared its styling. This meant the Javelin’s Corvette-like front fender curves, long hood and semi-fastback roofline were key styling cues, as was the full-width taillight panel. Marking it as the top dog in the AMC kennel were a mesh grille, a rear spoiler and a few options, such as a cowl induction hood and a big “T” stripe for the hood, that were not available on the standard Javelin. Inside the AMX, bucket seats and a console were standard and the dash curved around the driver. Along with that cockpit feel, the dash and door panels featured a metallic “engine turned” appliqué which further enhanced the AMX’s decidedly sporty vibe.
Extra performance for the AMX
With an overall length of 191.8 inches, the Javelin was about two inches longer than a ’71 Mustang and about four inches longer than a ’71 Camaro. Under the hood, a 360 cubic-inch, two-barrel V8 with 245 horsepower was standard, and could be hooked up to either a three-speed automatic or three-speed manual gearbox. Most buyers stepped up to either the 360 4-barrel (285 hp) or 401 4-barrel (330 hp) V8, either of which could have the automatic or a four-speed manual. Any guesses as to which powertrain we’d go with? The optional “Go” package included either the 360-4 barrel or 401-4 barrel V8 along with dual exhausts, the “twin grip” rear differential, the cowl induction hood with the T stripe, 15-inch (rather than 14-inch) wheels, a firmer suspension and a Rally gauge package.
As you were
For 1972, there were just a few changes to note for AMC’s sporty coupe. A smaller, 304 cubic-inch V8 was the standard engine, with both 360s and the 401 optional. As with other American cars, engine output ratings changed from “Gross” to “Net”. The previous Gross ratings were measured with the engine itself running on a stand, as opposed to the more realistic Net ratings which measured its output with accessory pulleys, exhaust and transmission all installed.
Yes, the ’72 engines lost a little power due to drops in compression that allowed them to meet tougher emissions standards and run on lower octane gas, but they didn’t lose nearly as much as simply comparing gross to net numbers might falsely indicate. That said, the 304 made 150 hp, the 360 2 barrel V8 was now rated at 175 hp, the 360 4 barrel with dual exhaust made 220 hp, and the big dog 401 was rated at 255 hp.
As the mid-’70s approached, luxury started to replace performance as a big selling point. For 1973, AMC offered an optional Cardin (yes, Pierre Cardin, the clothes designer) interior package for the Javelin and it could even be had on the AMX. Fully embracing the outlandish ’70s, the Cardin package featured black upholstery sporting wide stripes of white, orange and fuchsia running rampant over the seats, door panels and even the headliner. Visually, the only notable external change was the taillights going from the previous full width strip design to four semi-squared off units. Fortunately, for those who actually wanted performance more than plush trimmings, you could still specify an AMX with the 360 or 401 Go package and a Hurst-shifted four-speed.
The following year, 1974, would be the Javelin’s — and hence the Javelin AMX’s – last. Other than the Cardin package disappearing from the options roster, nothing changed for ’74.
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Today’s war among American performance cars easily rivals the one waged so fiercely during the 1960s and early ’70s. In addition to the factory muscle car offerings, you had upgraded versions offered by certain dealerships. Owned by rapid enthusiasts, these dealerships were hell bent on giving their customers (and themselves) a reputation for street battle supremacy.
These dealers — such as Yenko Chevrolet, Mr. Norm’s Grand Spaulding Dodge and Tasca Ford — would gladly build up your Camaro, Challenger or Mustang to a performance level seemingly limited only by your nerve and financial status. Pavement burners such as a Yenko Camaro sporting a 427-cubic inch big block gave acceleration junkies serious one-upmanship on their buddies who had “settled” for a stock SS396 Camaro. Likewise for Dodge fans who wanted a hopped up Dart and Ford fans who, before the factory made it available, wanted nothing less than a 428 Cobra Jet V8 in their Mustangs.
Nowadays, modern factory performance cars leave little argument for such improvements. Does anyone really need more than what we’ve seen show up in Chevy, Ford and Dodge showrooms the last couple of years? Specifically, how could you possibly want more than a 580-horsepower Camaro ZL1, a 662-hp Mustang Shelby GT500 or a 707-hp Challenger Hellcat? For those performance buffs who live by the “too much is not enough” credo, there are a number of companies around who are more than willing to boost these beasts beyond their already crazy capabilities.
Mustang fans who were disappointed to see the Shelby GT500 absent from the all-new 2015 Mustang family need only contact Shelby American. Click away and you’ll see they offer the newest ‘stang in the 750-horse “Super Snake” version that along with all that go-power sports upgraded brakes and suspension as well as various carbon-fiber body components. If you do own a 2011-2014 GT500 and you’ve deep enough pockets, you can have them turn your car into a 1,200-hp track day monster.
On the other side of the battlefield, Chevy Camaro enthusiasts can once again hit the streets with a Yenko Camaro, thanks to Special Vehicle Engineering who acquired the rights to use the hallowed dealership’s name. Just like the good old days, a 427 cubic-inch V8 is stuffed under the hood, only this time it’s the modern small-block “LS7″version. Formerly used in the Corvette Z06 and currently seen in the new Camaro Z/28, the LS7 normally makes 505 horsepower. For the Yenko, it is supercharged and further tweaked to make a thumping 700 horsepower. Proper homage is paid to the original Yenko Camaros via a scooped hood and 1969-style “YSC” (Yenko Super Car) body graphics.
As it did in the early ’70s, the Dodge Challenger faces off against those rivals from Ford and Chevrolet. Right off the showroom floor, you can get over 700 horsepower in a new Challenger, provided you spring for the Hellcat version. That’s enough thrust to sling you down the quarter mile in just under 12 seconds. Should you find that somewhat lacking, you can have the good folks at Hennessey Performance beef up your Hellcat to the tune of 852 horsepower. Short of strapping a Space Shuttle’s Booster rocket to the trunk lid, there’s not much else that you could do to turn your Hellcat into one of hardest accelerating vehicles wearing four tires and a license plate.
Whether you keep your modern performance car bone stock or choose to have it modified by an aftermarket tuning firm, there’s no denying that today’s car wars make this a great time to have a license for us with 93 octane flowing freely through our veins.
Note: Get quality auto parts for everything from regular vehicle maintenance to special car projects at Advance Auto Parts.
From timeless icons to everyday essentials, Crucial Cars examines the vehicles we can’t live without.
For this installment, the Mechanic Next Door does some heavy lifting, delving into the GMC Sierra pickup’s history and looking at the newest model.
Max and Morris Grabowsky may not be household names, but they cemented their place in automotive history nonetheless. In 1901 the Grabowsky duo built a truck prototype in Pontiac, Michigan, and went on to form their company – the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company – a year later. It didn’t take long for the brothers’ truck-building efforts and success to attract competitors’ attention, with General Motors buying them in 1909. Just three years later at the New York Auto Show, the name GMC Trucks would make its debut.
And so begins the story of GMC’s Sierra – a leader in the category of full-size pickups and a nearly identical twin to Chevy’s Silverado truck lineup. It wasn’t until the 1970s, however, that GMC would debut the name Sierra, using it to designate their trucks’ trim level, until 1987 when Sierra began serving as the permanent name for GMC’s full-size pickups.
GMC’s early, 1960’s-era pickups – before the Sierra name change – were designated as either “wideside” or “fenderside” – the latter corresponding to what many drivers today refer to as “stepside” pickups with fenders that flare out over the rear wheels. GMC also was one of the first to use numbers to indicate its trucks’ hauling capacities using the “1000”, “1500”, and “2000” designations that are common today in one form or another among all the major truck manufacturers. A “K” attached to those numbers indicated a GMC truck with four-wheel drive, and there were just two trim levels available – base or Custom. The standard engine was a 236-cubic-inch inline six delivering 135 horsepower.
Through the mid-1960’s, GMC trucks underwent a suspension change, additional engine options, and cosmetic changes to freshen the truck’s appearance. One of the most notable changes, and perhaps the start of pickups’ migration to becoming more than just work vehicles, was the debut of air conditioning in 1965.
1973 saw GM completely redesign its pickup truck line with longer wheelbases and the debut of a four-door crew cab. Engine choices ranged from a 100-horsepower, 250-cubic-inch inline six on the low end to a 240-horse 454 V8. GM’s next complete overhaul of its Sierra truck line wouldn’t occur until 1988 with trucks sporting a third more glass for improved visibility and a marked focus on more luxury items, such as upholstery and instrumentation.
That 80’s-era “luxury” pales in comparison to today’s model, considering that the 2016 GMC Sierra sports such innovations as advanced safety features and a 4G Wi-Fi Hotspot. The pickup’s evolution from being strictly a work vehicle to becoming a multi-purpose vehicle today is clearly evident on GMC’s site for Sierra, where a review of the vehicle’s interior receives precedence over its capabilities – something that would have been unheard of when trucks were meant solely for hauling and pulling. This old school Sierra’s transition into a show vehicle shows that there’s clearly a lot of life left for these pickups even when their days of doing hard work are over.
That’s not to say that new Sierra’s lack anything in the performance department. Its 6.2L V8 cranks out 420 horsepower, which GMC says is more than any other light-duty pickup. And, according to GM, the available EcoTec3 5.3L V8 engine delivers the best V8 fuel economy available among any full-size pickup. Balancing that power with control is Hill Descent Control, allowing for less nerve-wracking downhill journeys in rough terrain, and the Eaton Locker which automatically locks the rear wheels when slippage is detected.
Other automatic technology features aimed at assisting drivers include the Lane Keep Assist which helps drivers avoid drifting out of their lane by automatically correcting steering, and IntelliBeam which activates or deactivates Sierra’s high beams based on traffic conditions. Forward Collision Alert provides audible and visual alerts to help prevent collisions while the Safety Alert Seat vibrates as a warning signal to drivers.
Technology inside Sierra’s cab that’s aimed at driver convenience rather than strictly safety includes IntellilLink for customizing and organizing a variety of media, Apple CarPlay for syncing phones to the IntelliLink system, the previously mentioned 4G WiFi hotspot, and OnStar’s RemoteLink app to remotely start the vehicle, pinpoint its location on a map, and monitor the vehicle’s mechanical functions.
Available in four trim levels – Sierra Base Trim, SLE, SLT, and Denali, Sierra’s base MSRP is $27,275, and heads higher from there. After decades of popularity among truck buyers and features that give drivers what they want, the Sierra’s popularity doesn’t show any signs of slowing down.
Editor’s note: When you need anything related to your GMC Sierra, turn to Advance Auto Parts first. Buy online, pick up in store, and get back to the garage.
Much like an elite athlete’s ability to rapidly breathe allows them to perform stronger, so it goes with your car’s engine. Whether you drive a ’69 Chevelle or an ’09 Civic, the same principle applies. Get more air in and out and your engine will make more power and run stronger. This is why forced induction (i.e. turbocharging and supercharging) is so popular as a means for, literally, pumping up an engine’s output. That’s great, but unless it came on your car it’s also easily a $5,000 and up modification.
If you want to improve your car’s performance without spending a lot, then you’ll want to focus on cost-effective ways to make that mill breathe like an Olympic decathlete without tearing into it. In other words, consider these following bolt-on mods that will give you the best bang, or should we say breathing, for your buck.
Golden Oldies Take a Breather
Going with a less-restrictive air filter setup than what the factory has supplied has long been a staple of performance enthusiasts. Those who own an old American car from the ’60s and ’70s typically favor a round, open-element air cleaner that sits over that carburetor. Although some old muscle cars actually came standard with these types of filters, or even trick hood scoops that funneled colder outside air to the intake, more often than not you’d see a closed housing that breathed through a snorkel-like fixture sticking out of its side. Other options for those golden oldies include Edelbrock’s iconic, triangular “Pro-Flo 1000” (formerly known as the “Lynx”) open-element filter.
Something for the Younger Ones
When fuel injection became more widespread in the ’80s, air filter assemblies took on more complex configurations that continue to this day. The latter is due chiefly to being equipped with various sensors that keep tabs on things like intake air temperature and velocity so the computers can adjust fuel metering accordingly. The air filters themselves are typically buried within black plastic boxes. The aftermarket quickly came to the rescue with low-restriction, cold-air kits that typically feature a semi-conical open-element filter. K&N, in particular, makes well-engineered kits that are known for their high quality and wide range of applications.
Ok, Now Exhale
So now that your engine can inhale more deeply; it’s time to turn your attention to the exhaling side of the equation – the exhaust. Before model year 1975, when catalytic converters (“cats”, for short) came on the scene to clean up exhaust emissions, the default performance-enhancing setup was pretty straightforward: exhaust headers running to true dual exhausts with a crossover. Nowadays, the ideal setup is pretty much the same, albeit with high-flow cats plumbed into the system. Of course you’ll want to check with your state’s emissions laws beforehand regarding replacing the cat(s), as some states may only allow factory replacements.
Still, going with a full engine-to-tailpipes system can be rather complicated (ask anybody who’s installed headers) and expensive, plus that labor is probably beyond what most shade-tree wrenches can do. The good news is you don’t have to go that far. Those looking for a cost-effective and minimal hassle upgrade should consider a “cat-back” exhaust system. It is just that, a system that bolts up after your car’s catalytic converter(s). With its freer-flowing pipes and lower-restriction muffler(s), a cat-back exhaust system lets your engine exhale easier and sounds pretty cool in the process.
Regardless of what you drive, there are plenty of great choices for a cat-back system. Popular brands include Borla, Dynomax and Magnaflow. Even within each manufacturer’s product line, there’s great variety, sonically speaking. You’ve got systems that are fairly quiet at idle and part throttle that then growl gratifyingly when you step into it. And then you’ve got the more aggressive setups that proudly make their presence known whether you’re burbling at a light on the boulevard or grabbing gears as you rocket up a freeway on-ramp.
For these power-boosting auto parts, along with all the tools you’ll need to complete the job, Advance Auto Parts will get back to the garage fast.
Two major factors influence a car’s design: style and function. Depending on whether the goal is head-turning looks or maximum space for people and things determines the outcome. If the latter goal is the chief concern, then there’s no denying that a boxy design is the way to go. Start adding sexy curves and swooping rooflines and passenger and cargo space pay the price. In honor of those space efficient rectilinear designs, we have come up with our Top 10 Boxy Cars. Other than alphabetical, this list is in no special order and encompasses both old and new. Because some designs just don’t go out of style.
Introduced back in 1968 and running through 1976, BMW’s 2002 basically invented the popular sport sedan segment. The boxy, unassuming compact Bimmer offered spirited performance and agile handling that could give sports cars of the day a run for their money on a twisty road. Perhaps most prized among these are the “tii” versions made from ’72 through ’74. Sporting fuel injection rather than the standard 2002’s carburetor, the 2002 tii had 125 horsepower to the standard 2002’s 100.
This seemingly bland, compact car quickly became known as a wolf in sheep’s clothing. Unlike most Japanese compacts of the time (late ’60s through early ’70s), the 510 wasn’t just a simple economy car. Equipped with a peppy four cylinder engine, front disc brakes and an independent rear suspension, the rear-drive 510 was something of a poor man’s BMW 2002 that responded well to basic modifications. As such, this boxy, rear-wheel-drive sedan was a well-balanced performer and a big hit as an SCCA road racer for enthusiasts on a budget.
Amidst today’s crossover SUVs and minivans, Ford’s Flex, which debuted for 2009, is something of an anomaly — a modern take on the old-school station wagon. With its flat sides and squared-off roofline the Flex offers a surprising amount of space within. Indeed its third row seat can handle a pair of adults. Compared to a bulky minivan or large crossover, the Flex sits lower and offers a more carlike driving experience to go along with its unique looks.
Seemingly picking up where the first-generation Scion xB (see below) left off, the Soul is another compact cubist car that manages to make a cool styling statement with its simple lines. A peppy, fun to drive demeanor, good build quality and a low price add to this Korean’s many charms.
The original Mini debuted for 1959, offering Europeans a tiny car that could still seat four and zip in and out of city traffic. A small four cylinder engine driving the front wheels contributed to the Mini’s amazing space efficiency. The Mini’s light weight, low center of gravity and squat stance translated into a high fun to drive factor. The Cooper was initially a higher-performance version of the Mini. After being produced until 2000, the original Mini was finally retired. BMW bought the rights to the Mini and reintroduced a completely redesigned model for 2002.
With the aptly-named Cube, introduced for 2009, Nissan unabashedly embraced the Boxism school of automotive design. Trying to add a dash of style backfired, as some critics mercilessly described the Cube’s looks, especially from the rear, as a cross between a vending machine and a washing machine. Still, others think it looks cool and the basic tenets of big room in a small package hold true here, with the tallish Cube boasting comfy, thickly padded seats with plenty of space for a quartet of basketball players.
The first generation Scion xB (2004-2007) was a popular car among the younger folks. Proving that it can be hip to be square, this xB combined affordability with a sense of style along with a generous standard features list and rugged underpinnings courtesy of its Toyota parentage. Sadly, the second-gen xB, although still a good, practical car, got bigger and somehow lost the “cool” cache of its earlier brethren.
Once the vehicle of choice for hippies and Grateful Dead devotees (who usually were one and the same), the earlier versions (1950s-1960s) of the VW Type 2, or “Bus, Microbus, Van” boasted seating for up to nine. Acceleration, for lack of a better word, was snail-like, courtesy of its air-cooled four cylinder engine that made anywhere from around 24 to 54 horsepower. Somehow these breadboxes have become genuine collectible vehicles, with the split windshield, multi-windowed versions going for the biggest bucks. Auction sales of the latter have seen them go for anywhere from $50,000 to over $100,000.
Volkswagen Rabbit and Golf
Also earning honors in the boxy car awards for Volkswagen are its Rabbit and Golf. Introduced in the mid-’70s, the Rabbit (called the Golf in Germany) had a space efficient transverse four/front-wheel-drive powertrain, that along with its square-rigged body allowed more passenger room inside than, according to the ads of the time, a Rolls-Royce Corniche. The Rabbit name later changed to Golf for 1985, then briefly back to Rabbit for 2006-2009 before again going back to Golf. Special mention goes to the GTI version of both, a hopped-up Rabbit/Golf that was a blast to drive yet easy to live with thanks to its inherent practicality.
Volvo…take your pick
The first boxy Volvo was the 140/240 series, which debuted for 1967 and ran, essentially with the same body shell, through 1993. We like the turbo version which debuted in the early-’80s, putting some serious spring in this shoebox’s step. One could also make the “looks like the box it came in” case for Volvo’s 740/760/940/960/850 models that were produced in the ’80s and ’90s and featured slim roof pillars, a low beltline and large glass area that made for excellent outward visibility.
Note: Whether your aesthetic is boxy or sleek, Advance Auto Parts has all the car parts and automotive accessories you need to keep your ride running smoothly.
From timeless icons to everyday essentials, Crucial Cars examines the vehicles we can’t live without.
For this installment, Gearhead’s Garage puts the spotlight on Chevrolet’s iconic sport coupe, the Camaro.
Back when the Chevrolet Camaro debuted, the Beatles were making albums, color TV was a new novelty and the Vietnam war was escalating. Chevy’s sleek new number, an answer to Ford’s super successful Mustang launched a few years prior, came onto the groovy scene to get its slice of the “pony car” pie. In the nearly half century since, the Camaro has stayed true to its roots by providing enthusiasts with an abundance of styling and performance at an affordable price.
Right back at you Ford
Ford’s Mustang, launched in the spring of 1964, was an immediate smash success. It introduced a new automotive segment that became known as the pony car — an affordable, relatively compact sporty coupe with long hood and short rear deck proportions. Loosely based on Chevrolet’s compact Nova, the Camaro was introduced for 1967. And so began a rivalry that continues to this day, one as fierce as the Yankees versus the Red Sox, or Coke versus Pepsi.
Available in both coupe and convertible body styles, the Camaro could be had with a wide array of powertrains. One could have anything from a 230 cubic-inch, 140-horsepower straight six on up to a storming 396 cube V8 cranking out 375 hp. Transmissions consisted of two- and three-speed automatics as well as three- and four-speed manuals.
The trim levels similarly ran the gamut and included the base Camaro, the fancy RS (Rally Sport) with its hidden headlights and added interior/exterior garnishment, the muscular SS that could be had in either SS350 or SS396 guise, and then there was the Z/28. Getting its name from the actual option code, the Z/28 was a street-legal road race machine sporting a firmer suspension and a high-output 302 cube V8 matched exclusively to a four-speed stick. Seriously underrated at 290 hp, the high-revving 302 made more like 350-375 horses. The Z/28 was a rare sight for that first year, as only 602 were built.
The next year saw minimal changes. Visually, the easiest way to tell a ’68 from a ’67 is the lack of the triangular vent windows which gave a slightly sleeker look to the ’68. The 1969 Camaro is for many enthusiasts the one to have. Although essentially the same as its other first-generation brothers under the skin, the ’69’s more aggressive styling boasted flared character lines that came off the front and rear wheel wells, giving an impression of speed and power that the upper versions could easily back up.
Throughout this first generation there were also several rare, ultra high performance versions. Specially ordered through the COPO (Central Office Production Order) program via dealers such as Yenko and Berger, these Camaros had beefy 427 V8s rated at a conservative 425 horsepower. The top dog was the Camaro ZL1, of which just 69 were built for 1969. A ZL1 also featured a 427 V8, but in this case it was of exotic all-aluminum construction, yielding a big block brute that barely weighed any more than a 327 V8.
Following a tough act
The second-generation Camaro debuted as a 1970 ½ model. Taking the long hood/short deck aesthetic to a new level, Chevy definitely had the looks nailed. Initially available in base, RS, SS and Z/28 versions, this Camaro could be packed with power, as the Z/28 came with a high-output 350 rated at 360 hp, while the top SS 396 (actually now displacing 402 cubes) again made 375.
Sadly, as with all other car makers, Chevrolet’s engine output started to slide as the mid-’70s hit due to tightening emissions standards. Indeed, the SS was dropped from the lineup after ’72 while the Z/28 went on hiatus for ’75 and ’76 seemingly out of shame, to return in mid-’77 with just 170 hp from its 350 V8. Still, these cars provided some driving fun by way of their quick, relatively agile handling and rumbling exhausts. Thankfully, engine output started to creep up as the 1980s hit, with the ’80 Z28 making 190 hp. Styling got increasingly flashy, culminating in the ’80 (and ’81) Z28 which seemed inspired by its Pontiac Trans Am cousin, what with bigger graphics, an Air Induction hood scoop, functional fender vents and wheel flares.
Less weight, more power
The third generation of the Camaro spanned 1982 through 1992. Through these years, one could choose a base Camaro, a luxury-themed Berlinetta (later the LT) or the performance-oriented Z28 and later, IROC-Z. Downsized, this Camaro was also up to 500 pounds lighter than the one before, and also heralded the debut of fuel injection and a four-speed automatic transmission.
Now that technology and engineering savvy allowed engines to efficiently meet emissions standards, output climbed through the decade. The 1982 Camaro’s power lineup started with an anemic, 90-hp four-cylinder engine, moved up through a 2.8-liter, 112-hp V6 and topped out with a 5.0-liter (305 cubic-inch) V8, rated at 145 hp, or with available Cross-fire fuel injection, 165 hp. Midway through 1983, a 190 hp “High Output” 5.0 liter became available, while two years later a 5.0-liter with Tuned Port Injection debuted, making 215 hp. Named for the International Race of Champions (which used identically-prepped Camaros), the Camaro IROC-Z also debuted for 1985 sporting huge for the time 16-inch wheels, a track-tuned suspension and, unlike the Z28, a monotone paint scheme along with tasteful “IROC-Z” bodyside graphics.
Literally big news came around for 1987, when a 5.7-liter (350 for you old-schoolers) V8 once again became available in a Camaro, now with tuned port injection and 225 horses. Sadly, it could only be hooked up to the automatic gearbox, but by now the 5.0 TPI engine could be had with a five-speed manual, the latter being the enthusiasts’ choice. The next year, the Z28 was dropped, essentially being replaced by the IROC-Z due to the latter’s massive popularity.
Other than the V6 growing from 2.8- to 3.1 liters (now at a respectable 140 hp) and the debut of a driver side airbag, not much changed until 1991, when the IROC-Z was dropped due to Dodge getting the race contract. And so, the Z28 returned once again to the lineup, now with an IROC-Z-like monochrome body treatment, color-keyed alloy wheels and taller rear deck spoiler. The 5.7-liter TPI engine now thumped out a stout 245 horsepower. Although 1992 marked the 25th anniversary of the Camaro, celebration was limited to a badge on the dash and the availability of a commemorative package consisting chiefly of dual hood/deck stripes.
With Part Two of this installment, we’ll cover the fourth-, fifth- and upcoming sixth-generation Camaros.
A number of Camaro enthusiast sites provide advice as well as classifieds for cars and parts for sale. You may want to check out Camaro Forums and Camaro Source. Furthermore, acceleration times can be found on zeroto60times.com.
Whether you want to maintain an original Camaro in factory-spec condition or modify one from the power-starved era into a true muscle machine, Advance Auto Parts is here to help with plenty of high quality parts.
Back in the day, “the day” being the thousands from the mid-1950s through the early 1970s, American performance cars’ fuel delivery system of choice was four-, six- or even eight-barrel carburetion. More often than not you saw a single four-barrel sitting atop the engine’s intake manifold. But a trio of two-barrel carburetors (called “Tri-power” and “Six pack” among other cool sounding names) could be had on some Detroit iron during the ’60s and ’70s, such as the Pontiac GTO, Chevy Corvette, Plymouth Road Runner and Dodge Challenger.
For monsters such as the early ’60s Impala SS409 and the ’67 Shelby GT500 Mustang, nothing less than two four barrel carbs (“dual quads”) would do. Carburetors were not without their pitfalls, however, as tasks like changing jets, synching those multi-carb setups and generally getting them perfectly dialed in were usually best left to a shop with all the necessary tools and expertise.
Fuel injection in those early years was very rare, but available on a handful of American cars during some of those years. For example, certain 1957 GM products from Chevrolet and Pontiac offered it just that one year.
As fuel injection was relatively new technology, the bugs weren’t fully worked out so it was dropped as an (admittedly expensive and not popular) option for the full size GM cars the very next year. It did, however, continue to be optional on the Corvette, right through 1965.
As performance-themed American cars passed through the 1980s, fuel-injection came online bigtime.
Thanks to their ability to monitor and make millisecond adjustments for various parameters such as intake air temperature and idle quality, these modern-era F.I. systems were instrumental in bringing back performance after the dark days of the mid-’70s to early ’80s. Being able to precisely control the air/fuel mixture, they allowed engineers to fine tune the engine to both meet tough emissions standards and offer increased power output. Other benefits are smoother operation all around, such as when driving in high elevations and in very cold or hot weather.
Which all brings us to the question of: should you have an older performance car, should you keep the old carbs or make the switch to fuel injection? Unless you want to keep your ride 100 percent factory correct for seriously judged shows and such, we’d suggest jumping aboard the injection express.
These “self-tuning” systems offered by Edelbrock, FAST, Holley and MSD will have your ride always operating at peak efficiency without you needing to scrape knuckles and waste precious weekend time. And no worries about having that classic engine compartment ruined with something that looks like a Flux Capacitor, as these systems mimic the iconic look of a big four-barrel carb. So go ahead, put on that original chrome-lidded air cleaner with the engine call-out sticker on it, we won’t tell if you don’t.
Best of all, these state of the art systems make for a fairly simple, bolt-on proposition, essentially the same effort as swapping out carburetors minus the subsequent tuning. After you’ve bolted the system in place, you then enter basic information such as engine size and camshaft specs into a hand-held controller, which gives the system its base-line operating parameters. One twist of the key usually fires up your engine and then you’re smoothly off and running.
As you drive your car, the system’s ECU (Electronic Control Unit) continuously fine tunes itself according to information it picks up from the oxygen sensor. No more rough idling, no more cold-weather stumble. Indeed, according to this article in Hot Rod magazine it couldn’t be easier “No jets, no adjustments, no laptops—just bolt it on and turn the key.”
Editor’s note: You can get your carbs in order and save big at Advance Auto Parts. Buy online, pick up in-store in 30 minutes.
Jim Kazliner, Editor-In-Chief